Mayo 18 en la Historia |
Miércoles 17 Mayo, 2017 19:45

Mayo 18 en la Historia

Monte Cassino falls to the Allies; Mt. St. Helens erupts in Washington State; The U.S. Supreme Court upholds racial segregation; Pope John Paul II born in Poland; Movie director Frank Capra born; ‘Les Miserables’ ends its Broadway run.

Hoy en la Historia

Mayo 18

en la Historia,

Today in History,

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


The Abbey Of Monte Cassino before 1944

Monte Cassino falls to the Allies

Ruined monastery on hill top

The monastery at Monte Cassino shows only the outer walls remaining after the Allied bombing

The Polish flag is flying over the ruins of the ancient Italian monastery which has been a symbol of German resistance since the beginning of the year.

Polish troops entered the hill-top abbey this morning, six days after the latest attacks began on this strategic stronghold at the western end of the German defensive position known as the Gustav Line.

British troops have taken control of the fortified town of Cassino at the foot of the “Monastery Hill”.

The Allies’ hard-fought victory comes four months after their first assault on Monastery Hill failed in January.

When my battalion of 1,001 men advanced into Monte Cassino village, three days of fighting had reduced it to 97 men
People’s War memories »

A German official announcement said: “Cassino, which the Anglo-Americans have vainly been charging for months with strong forces, was evacuated without a fight on Wednesday night in favour of a bolt position farther in the rear for the sake of economising in forces.”

The Allies, under the overall command of General Sir Harold Alexander, began the fourth and final offensive for Monte Cassino on 11 May.

The Gustav Line was finally breached on 14 May. While the 5th Army made a flanking attack to the south, the 8th Army of British, Polish, Canadian and Indian troops made a frontal assault on the line at Cassino.

In addition, the French Expeditionary Force, part of the 5th Army, attacked from the west.

According to reports from Allied headquarters, the 8th Army succeeded in cutting Highway Six, the main road linking the south to Rome

They also claimed a “substantial proportion” of the 1st German Parachute Division had been destroyed.

In the six days of fighting at Cassino the Allies have taken more than 1,500 prisoners.

Farther to the west, the French Expeditionary Corps have taken the town of Esperia, at the foot of Monte d’Oro, another strategic German defensive position.

Reports from the French say their advance was so rapid, the Germans were unable to recover their dead and they found more than 400 bodies awaiting burial.

Large quantities of artillery were also left abandoned. Many of the guns and other equipment are said to be in a usable condition.

American forces pressing forward from the south have captured Formia on the coast and are pushing along the road which winds along the base of the mountains, loosening the German grip on the Gaeta peninsula.

The success of Operation Diadem, the fourth and final assault on Monte Cassino, was down to the co-ordinated assault on the Gustav Line, forcing the German withdrawal.

The first assault in January failed when the series of co-ordinated attacks did not go according to plan and the Germans held on to the crucial valley headed by Monte Cassino.

The second battle began on 15 February with the complete destruction of the monastery by heavy and medium bombers.

But the attack was badly planned and the nearest Allied troops were too far away to take advantage of the shock of bombing and again the German grip could not be shaken.

The destruction of the monastery, in fact, made the hill easier to defend. The Germans dug in behind the rubble and when the third battle began on 15 March with yet more bombing, the parachutists defending the town clung on.

In Context

The Allies had landed troops on the west coast of Italy at Anzio in January with the intention of breaking the deadlock in the Italian campaign.However, they suffered heavy losses from Field Marshall Albert Kesselring’s troops and it was only after reinforcements arrived that they succeeded in breaking out from the beachhead and linking up with the US 5th Army on 25 May.

The 5th Army under Lieutenant-General Mark Clark pressed on to take Rome on 5 June 1944 ignoring orders from General Sir Harold Alexander to thrust into the German line of retreat. The capture of Rome was seen as significant but it meant the Germans escaped.

The Italian campaign then assumed secondary status as six divisions were withdrawn for the French Riviera landings. Efforts were made to replace these troops with Italians.

The Allies’ advance through Italy was slowed down by bad weather and difficult terrain. The Americans and British also disagreed over the aims of the campaign which led to a lack of clear leadership.

By February 1945, General Sir Harold Alexander had been appointed supreme commander in the Mediterranean and was instructed after the Yalta conference to pin down the maximum number of German divisions while the main Allied effort was made on the western front.

He finally succeeded in taking Bologna and then Verona in April 1945. Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans retreating with the Germans. He was executed on 28 April. The Germans surrendered on 2 May.


Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel



This Day in History

History Channel


Pope John Paul II born

John Paul II-Juan Pablo II_2On May 18, 1920, Karol Jozef Wojtyla is born in the Polish town of Wadowice, 35 miles southwest of Krakow.Wojtyla went on to become Pope John Paul II, history’s most well-traveled pope and the first non-Italian to hold the position since the 16th century. After high school, the future pope enrolled at Krakow’s Jagiellonian University, where he studied philosophy and literature and performed in a theater group. During World War II, Nazis occupied Krakow and closed the university, forcing Wojtyla to seek work in a quarry and, later, a chemical factory. By 1941, his mother, father, and only brother had all died, leaving him the sole surviving member of his family.

Although Wojtyla had been involved in the church his whole life, it was not until 1942 that he began seminary training. When the war ended, he returned to school at Jagiellonian to study theology, becoming an ordained priest in 1946. He went on to complete two doctorates and became a professor of moral theology and social ethics. On July 4, 1958, at the age of 38, he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Krakow by Pope Pius XII. He later became the city’s archbishop, where he spoke out for religious freedom while the church began the Second Vatican Council, which would revolutionize Catholicism. He was made a cardinal in 1967, taking on the challenges of living and working as a Catholic priest in communist Eastern Europe. Once asked if he feared retribution from communist leaders, he replied, “I’m not afraid of them. They are afraid of me.”

Wojtyla was quietly and slowly building a reputation as a powerful preacher and a man of both great intellect and charisma. Still, when Pope John Paul I died in 1978 after only a 34-day reign, few suspected Wojtyla would be chosen to replace him. But, after seven rounds of balloting, the Sacred College of Cardinals chose the 58-year-old, and he became the first-ever Slavic pope and the youngest to be chosen in 132 years.

A conservative pontiff, John Paul II’s papacy was marked by his firm and unwavering opposition to communism and war, as well as abortion, contraception, capital punishment, and homosexual sex. He later came out against euthanasia, human cloning, and stem cell research. He traveled widely as pope, using the eight languages he spoke (Polish, Italian, French, German, English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin) and his well-known personal charm, to connect with the Catholic faithful, as well as many outside the fold.

On May 13, 1981, Pope John Paul II was shot in St. Peter’s Square by a Turkish political extremist, Mehmet Ali Agca. After his release from the hospital, the pope famously visited his would-be assassin in prison, where he had begun serving a life sentence, and personally forgave him for his actions. The next year, another unsuccessful attempt was made on the pope’s life, this time by a fanatical priest who opposed the reforms of Vatican II.

Although it was not confirmed by the Vatican until 2003, many believe Pope John Paul II began suffering from Parkinson’s disease in the early 1990s. He began to develop slurred speech and had difficulty walking, though he continued to keep up a physically demanding travel schedule. In his final years, he was forced to delegate many of his official duties, but still found the strength to speak to the faithful from a window at the Vatican. In February 2005, the pope was hospitalized with complications from the flu. He died two months later.

Pope John Paul II is remembered for his successful efforts to end communism, as well as for building bridges with peoples of other faiths, and issuing the Catholic Church’s first apology for its actions during World War II. He was succeeded by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, who became Pope Benedict XVI. Benedict XVI began the process to beatify John Paul II in May 2005.



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Mayo 18 se celebra…
  • 100º Aniversario del fallecimiento de Isaac Albéniz.
  • Día de la Escarapela Argentina
  • Día Internacional de los Museos
Mayo 18 en la Historia del Mundo …
2005 Tragedia de Antuco en Chile, el segundo mayor desastre de la milicia en tiempos de paz.
1996 En la ciudad noruega de Oslo se celebra la edición n.º 41 de Eurovisión. La representante irlandesa, Eimear Quinn, alcanza la victoria con el tema The Voice.
1980 El volcán Monte Saint Helens entra en erupción, dejando los mayores daños demográficos y económicos en la historia de Estados Unidos.
1980 En Perú, después de 12 años de dictadura y mientras se realizaban las elecciones que elegirían al nuevo presidente democrático, el grupo terrorista Sendero Luminoso inicia la lucha armada atentando en el local electoral del pueblo ayacuchano de Chuschi.
1897 Se publicó la novela “Dracula”, del autor irlandes Bram Stoker.
1811 En la Batalla de Las Piedras (Uruguay) las fuerzas revolucionarias de la Banda Oriental al mando del general José Gervasio Artigas vencen a las fuerzas del Imperio español.
1565 En la ciudad de Concepción (Chile) se establece la Real Audiencia de Chile, por cédula de Felipe II.
1541 En el sitio de la actual ciudad de Morelia (México) el virrey Antonio de Mendoza funda la ciudad de Valladolid en la Nueva España.
1499 Parte del Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz, España) una flota de cuatro barcos, mandada por Alonso de Ojeda acompañado de Américo Vespucio y Juan de la Cosa que llega a las costas de Surinam, explorando el golfo de Paria y la isla de Curaçao.
1291 Caída de Acre, ultimo bastión cristiano en Tierra Santa.
Nacimientos Notables en Mayo 18 …
1987 Luisana Lopilato, actriz argentina.
1981 Mahamadou Diarra, futbolista maliense.
1978 Ricardo Carvalho, futbolista portugués
1975 Jack Johnson, músico estadounidense.
1975 Peter Iwers, bajista sueco (In Flames).
1971 Brad Friedel, futbolista estadounidense.
1970 Tina Fey, actriz estadounidense.
1969 Martika, cantante estadounidense.
1967 Heinz-Harald Frentzen, piloto de Fórmula 1 alemán.
1965 Ingo Schwichtenberg, baterista alemán (Helloween).
1962 Nanne Grönvall, cantante y compositorasueca (One More Time).
1962 Sandra Cretu, cantante alemana.
1960 Yannick Noah, ex-tenista y cantante francés.
1957 Michael Cretu, músico rumano, creador de Enigma.
1955 Chow Yun-Fat, actor chino.
1950 Mark Mothersbaugh, cantante estadounidense (Devo).
1949 Rick Wakeman, tecladista y compositor británico (Yes).
1946 Andreas Katsulas, actor estadounidense.
1946 Reggie Jackson, beisbolista estadounidense.
1944 W. G. Sebald, escritor alemán.
1939 Giovanni Falcone, juez italiano.
1937 Jacques Santer, político y abogado luxemburgués.
1933 Bernadette Chirac, política francesa.
1931 Don Martin, caricaturista estadounidense.
1930 Alfredo Leal Kuri, torero mexicano.
1920 Juan Pablo II papa polaco desde 1978 (m. 2005).
1919 Margot Fonteyn, bailarina de ballet británica.
1914 Pierre Balmain, diseñador francés.
1913 Charles Trenet, cantante francés.
1912 Perry Como, cantante estadounidense.
1912 Richard Brooks, director de cine estadounidense.
1912 Walter Sisulu, activista sudáfricano.
1901 Vincent Du Vigneaud, bioquímico estadounidense, premio Nobel de Química en 1955.
1897 Frank Capra, director de cine estadounidense.
1895 Augusto César Sandino, guerrillero nicaragüense.
1892 Emilio Esteban Infantes, militar español.
1891 Rudolf Carnap, filósofo alemán.
1889 Thomas Midgley, ingeniero mecánico estadounidense.
1883 Adolf George Walter Gropius, arquitecto alemán.
1883 Eurico Gaspar Dutra, militar y político brasileño, presidente de Brasil (1946-1951).
1876 Hermann Müller, canciller de Alemania.
1872 Bertrand Russell, filósofo y matemático británico, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1950.
1868 Nicolás II, zar de Rusia (1894-1917).
1850 Oliver Heaviside, físico británico.
1788 Hugh Clapperton, explorador inglés.
1742 Félix Azara y Perera, científico español.
1731 José Camarón Bonanat, pintor español.
1711 Rogelio José Boscovich, físico y astrónomo croata.
1616 Johann Jakob Froberger, compositor alemán.
1474 Isabel de Este, marquesa de Mantua.
1048 Omar Jayyam, escritor iraní.
Fallecimientos Notables en Mayo 18 …
2009 Wayne Allwine, actor de voz estadounidense (n. 1947).
2008 Irma Córdoba, actriz argentina (n. 1913).
2007 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, físico francés.
2005 Elsie Alvarado de Ricord, poetisa panameña.
2005 Luke SkyRunner, actor y cómico guatemalteco.
2004 Elvin Jones, baterista de jazz.
1999 Augustus Pablo, músico jamaicano.
1995 Elizabeth Montgomery, actriz estadounidense.
1995 Juan Gyenes, fotógrafo español.
1981 William Saroyan, escritor estadounidense.
1980 Ian Curtis, líder de la banda post-punk Joy Division.
1975 Aníbal Troilo (Pichuco), tanguero, bandoneón mayor de Buenos Aires.
1975 Kasimir Fajans, químico y físico estadounidense de origen polaco.
1975 Leroy Anderson, compositor estadounidense.
1967 Carlos Jiménez Díaz, médico español.
1922 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, médico francés, premio Nobel de Medicina en 1907.
1911 Gustav Mahler, compositor austríaco.
1909 George Meredith, novelista y poeta británico.
1909 Isaac Albéniz, compositor español.
1865 Francisco Bilbao, escritor chileno.
1838 Charles Maurice Talleyrand-Périgord, político francés.
1829 María Josefa de Sajonia, reina consorte de España (1819-1829).
1799 Pierre-Augustin de Beaumarchais, dramaturgo francés.
1781 Túpac Amaru (José Gabriel Condorcanqui), cacique peruano.
1675 Jacques Marquette, misionero y explorador francés.
1642 Alonso de Bonilla, poeta español.
1013 Hisham II, califa de Córdoba (España).
0526 Juan I, papa de la Iglesia Católica (523-526).


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1920 Pope John Paul II born
  • American Revolution

  • 1783 United Empire Loyalists reach Canada
  • Automotive

  • 1958 Lotus makes Formula One debut
  • Civil War

  • 1863 The siege of Vicksburg commences
  • Cold War

  • 1989 One million protesters take to the streets in Beijing
  • Crime

  • 1926 Popular evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson disappears
  • Disaster

  • 1980 Mount St. Helens erupts
  • General Interest

  • 1860 Lincoln nominated for presidency
  • 1896 Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 1974 India joins the nuclear club
  • 1980 Mount St. Helens erupts
  • 2012 Facebook raises $16 billion in largest tech IPO in U.S. history
  • Hollywood

  • 2001 Shrek released
  • Literary

  • 1593 Playwright Thomas Kyd’s accusations lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe
  • Music

  • 1980 Ian Curtis of Joy Division commits suicide
  • Old West

  • 1871 Chief Satanta massacres teamsters
  • Presidential

  • 1861 Newspaper report criticizes Mrs. Lincoln
  • Sports

  • 2004 Randy Johnson throws perfect game at 40
  • Vietnam War

  • 1966 Laird charges
  • 1969 Communists attack Xuan Loc
  • World War I

  • 1917 U.S. Congress passes Selective Service Act
  • World War II

  • 1943 Hitler gives the order for Operation Alaric
  • 1944 Polish Corps takes Monte Cassino


 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia

Source: Associated Press | | |  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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