Mayo 11 en la Historia | bambinoides.com
Miércoles 10 Mayo, 2017 20:33

Mayo 11 en la Historia

Gold Coast to get independence; Charges dropped against Daniel Ellsberg in the Pentagon Papers case; Garry Kasparov loses a chess match against IBM’s Deep Blue computer; Songwriter Irving Berlin born; Reggae star Bob Marley dies.

Hoy en la Historia,

Mayo 11 en la Historia,

Today in History May 11,

1135 –

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred

1956:

Gold Coast to get independence

The Gold Coast is to become the first black African nation to be granted independence from Britain.

 

In a statement to the House of Commons, Colonial Secretary Alan Lennox-Boyd said the Gold Coast will be allowed to govern itself within the Commonwealth provided a general election is held in the country.

If an election will be the only solution to the present situation then [Kwame Nkrumah] will go to the country as soon as possible
Gold Coast Finance Minister

The new West African state will incorporate the Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and Togoland, which recently voted to integrate with the Gold Coast.

Kwame Nkrumah, prime minister of Ghana

Kwame Nkrumah emerged as a leading nationalist figure after World War II

He set the target date for independence at 6 March, 1957.

The fledgling state will be named Ghana after an ancient West African kingdom which flourished from 300AD to 1100AD.

Ghana will be the first black African nation to become independent from Britain, but there are fears of internal fighting between various tribes in the region over a new constitution. For this reason, the minister is insisting on elections for a new legislature that will then be asked to approve self-governance.

The finance minister of the Gold Coast, Mr Gbedemah, welcomed Mr Lennox-Boyd’s announcement today and in an interview with the BBC made assurances that elections would be held soon.

“I know enough to be able to say that the prime minister [Kwame Nkrumah] has been planning that if an election will be the only solution to the present situation then he will go to the country as soon as possible,” he said.

The Gold Coast has been a British colony since 1901. After World War I part of the German colony of Togoland was mandated to the British, who linked it administratively with the Gold Coast colony.

In the Gold Coast, nationalist activity intensified after World War II. Kwame Nkrumah of the Convention People’s Party (CPP) emerged as the leading nationalist figure.

In 1951, Britain granted a new constitution, which had been drawn up by Africans, and general elections were held. The CPP won and Mr Nkrumah became prime minister.

In Context
Like its neighbours, Ghana’s post-independence history has been one of political and economic decline. Despite being rich in mineral resources, and endowed with a good education system and efficient civil service, Ghana fell victim to corruption and mismanagement soon after independence in 1957.In 1966, its first president and pan-African hero, Kwame Nkrumah, was deposed in a coup. In 1981, Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings staged a second coup. The country began to move towards economic stability and democracy.

In April 1992 a constitution allowing for a multiparty system was approved in a referendum, ushering in a period of democracy.

In 1994-95 land disputes in the north erupted into ethnic violence resulting in the deaths of 1,000 people and the displacement of a further 150,000.

Since 1957 independence has been granted to almost all Britain’s former colonies, and most have chosen to remain within the Commonwealth.

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Images from Today’s History:

 

Associated Press

History Channel

The Secret War

Ime_Magazine_Pentagon_Papers
Shortly after their release in June 1971, the Pentagon Papers were featured on the cover of TIME magazine for revealing “The Secret War” of the United States in Vietnam
The Pentagon Papers, officially titled United States – Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States’ political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were discovered and released by Daniel Ellsberg, and first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of The New York Times in 1971. A 1996 article in The New York Times said that the Pentagon Papers had demonstrated, among other things, that the Johnson Administration “systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress.”
More specifically, the papers revealed that the U.S. had secretly enlarged the scale of the Vietnam War with the bombings of nearby Cambodia and Laos, coastal raids on North Vietnam, and Marine Corps attacks, none of which were reported in the mainstream media.
For his disclosure of the Pentagon Papers, Ellsberg was initially charged with conspiracy, espionage, and theft of government property, but the charges were later dropped after prosecutors investigating the Watergate Scandal soon discovered that the staff members in the Nixon White House had ordered the so-called White House Plumbers to engage in unlawful efforts to discredit Ellsberg.
In June 2011, the entirety of the Pentagon Papers was declassified and publicly released.

Legal charges against Ellsberg[edit] Ellsberg surrendered to authorities in Boston, and admitted that he had given the papers to the press. I felt that as an American citizen, as a responsible citizen, I could no longer cooperate in concealing this information from the American public. I did this clearly at my own jeopardy and I am prepared to answer to all the consequences of this decision. — Ellsberg on why he released the Pentagon Papers to the press.[29] He was later indicted on charges of stealing and holding secret documents by a grand jury in Los Angeles.[29] Federal District Judge William Matthew Byrne, Jr. declared a mistrial and dismissed all charges against Ellsberg and Russo on May 11, 1973, after it was revealed that agents acting on the orders of the Nixon administration illegally broke into the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist and attempted to steal files, after representatives of the Nixon administration approached the Ellsberg trial judge with an offer of the job of FBI directorship, after several irregularities appeared in the government's case, and its claim that it had lost records of illegal wiretapping against Ellsberg conducted by the White House Plumbers in the contemporaneous Watergate scandal.[9] Byrne ruled: "The totality of the circumstances of this case which I have only briefly sketched offend a sense of justice. The bizarre events have incurably infected the prosecution of this case." Ellsberg and Russo were freed due to the mistrial.[9] Times v. United States is generally considered a victory for an extensive reading of the First Amendment, but as the Supreme Court ruled on whether the government had made a successful case for prior restraint, its decision did not void the Espionage Act or give the press unlimited freedom to publish classified documents. In March 1972, political scientist Samuel L. Popkin, then assistant professor of Government at the University of California, San Diego, was jailed for a week for his refusal to answer questions before a grand jury investigating the Pentagon Papers case, during a hearing before the Boston Federal District Court.[30] The Faculty Council later passed a resolution condemning the government's interrogation of scholars on the grounds that "an unlimited right of grand juries to ask any question and to expose a witness to citations for contempt could easily threaten scholarly research."[30] Gelb estimated that the Times only published about 5% of the study's 7,000 pages. The Beacon Press edition was also incomplete. Halperin, who had originally classified the study as secret, obtained most of the unpublished portions under the Freedom of Information Act and the University of Texas published them in 1983. The National Security Archive published the remaining portions in 2002. The study remained formally classified, however,[9] until 2011.

Legal charges against Ellsberg

Ellsberg surrendered to authorities in Boston, and admitted that he had given the papers to the press.
I felt that as an American citizen, as a responsible citizen, I could no longer cooperate in concealing this information from the American public. I did this clearly at my own jeopardy and I am prepared to answer to all the consequences of this decision.
— Ellsberg on why he released the Pentagon Papers to the press.
He was later indicted on charges of stealing and holding secret documents by a grand jury in Los Angeles. Federal District Judge William Matthew Byrne, Jr. declared a mistrial and dismissed all charges against Ellsberg and Russo on May 11, 1973, after it was revealed that agents acting on the orders of the Nixon administration illegally broke into the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist and attempted to steal files, after representatives of the Nixon administration approached the Ellsberg trial judge with an offer of the job of FBI directorship, after several irregularities appeared in the government’s case, and its claim that it had lost records of illegal wiretapping against Ellsberg conducted by the White House Plumbers in the contemporaneous Watergate scandal. Byrne ruled: “The totality of the circumstances of this case which I have only briefly sketched offend a sense of justice. The bizarre events have incurably infected the prosecution of this case.” Ellsberg and Russo were freed due to the mistrial.
Times v. United States is generally considered a victory for an extensive reading of the First Amendment, but as the Supreme Court ruled on whether the government had made a successful case for prior restraint, its decision did not void the Espionage Act or give the press unlimited freedom to publish classified documents.
In March 1972, political scientist Samuel L. Popkin, then assistant professor of Government at the University of California, San Diego, was jailed for a week for his refusal to answer questions before a grand jury investigating the Pentagon Papers case, during a hearing before the Boston Federal District Court. The Faculty Council later passed a resolution condemning the government’s interrogation of scholars on the grounds that “an unlimited right of grand juries to ask any question and to expose a witness to citations for contempt could easily threaten scholarly research.”
Gelb estimated that the Times only published about 5% of the study’s 7,000 pages. The Beacon Press edition was also incomplete. Halperin, who had originally classified the study as secret, obtained most of the unpublished portions under the Freedom of Information Act and the University of Texas published them in 1983. The National Security Archive published the remaining portions in 2002. The study remained formally classified, however, until 2011.
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower greets South Vietnam's President Ngo Dinh Diem, whose rise to power was backed by the United States, according to the Pentagon Papers

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower greets South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, whose rise to power was backed by the United States, according to the Pentagon Papers

The body of President Diệm after he was assassinated in the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, which was backed by the United States government as part of its covert policy of foreign regime change

The body of President Diệm after he was assassinated in the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, which was backed by the United States government as part of its covert policy of foreign regime change

Timeline
  • 1950: The United States provided large-scale military equipment to the French colonial empire in its fight against the Viet Minh
  • 1954: The United States began to engage in “acts of sabotage and terror warfare” against North Vietnam
  • 1955: The United States encouraged and directly assisted South Vietnamese President Ngô Đình Diệm’s rise to power
  • 1963: The United States encouraged and directly assisted the overthrow of the South Vietnamese President Ngô Đình Diệm
  • August 2, 1964: Following the Gulf of Tonkin incident, the United States manipulated public opinion in its preparation for open warfare
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This Day in History

History Channel

1934

Dust storm sweeps from Great Plains across Eastern states

On this day in 1934, a massive storm sends millions of tons of topsoil flying from across the parched Great Plains region of the United States as far east as New York, Boston and Atlanta.

At the time the Great Plains were settled in the mid-1800s, the land was covered by prairie grass, which held moisture in the earth and kept most of the soil from blowing away even during dry spells. By the early 20th century, however, farmers had plowed under much of the grass to create fields. The U.S. entry into World War I in 1917 caused a great need for wheat, and farms began to push their fields to the limit, plowing under more and more grassland with the newly invented tractor. The plowing continued after the war, when the introduction of even more powerful gasoline tractors sped up the process. During the 1920s, wheat production increased by 300 percent, causing a glut in the market by 1931.

That year, a severe drought spread across the region. As crops died, wind began to carry dust from the over-plowed and over-grazed lands. The number of dust storms reported jumped from 14 in 1932 to 28 in 1933. The following year, the storms decreased in frequency but increased in intensity, culminating in the most severe storm yet in May 1934. Over a period of two days, high-level winds caught and carried some 350 million tons of silt all the way from the northern Great Plains to the eastern seaboard. According to The New York Times, dust “lodged itself in the eyes and throats of weeping and coughing New Yorkers,” and even ships some 300 miles offshore saw dust collect on their decks.

The dust storms forced thousands of families from Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas and New Mexico to uproot and migrate to California, where they were derisively known as “Okies”–no matter which state they were from. These transplants found life out West not much easier than what they had left, as work was scarce and pay meager during the worst years of the Great Depression.

Another massive storm on April 15, 1935–known as “Black Sunday”–brought even more attention to the desperate situation in the Great Plains region, which reporter Robert Geiger called the “Dust Bowl.” That year, as part of its New Deal program, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration began to enforce federal regulation of farming methods, including crop rotation, grass-seeding and new plowing methods. This worked to a point, reducing dust storms by up to 65 percent, but only the end of the drought in the fall of 1939 would truly bring relief.

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:

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 Hispanópolis:

Mayo 11 se celebra…
  • Argentina: se conmemora el “Día del Himno Nacional Argentino” recordando ese mismo día de 1811 en que se cantó por primera vez.
  • Chile: se conmemora el Día del Estudiante en todos los establecimientos de educación escolar del país.
  • Chile: se conmemora el Día nacional del teatro.
Mayo 11 en la Historia del Mundo …
1997 En ajedrez, el superordenador de IBM Deep Blue gana a Garry Kasparov, suscitando la polémica al no quedar claro si el jugador más fuerte en ese entonces era una máquina.
1985 Fallecen 56 personas en el incendio del estadio Valley Parade, en Bradford, durante un partido de fútbol.
1960 Agentes del servicio secreto israelí (Mosad) capturan al genocida nazi Adolf Eichmann oculto en las afueras de Buenos Aires.
1960 Sale al mercado la primera píldora anticonceptiva.
1939 Se inicia la Batalla de Khalkhin Gol entre fuerzas del Ejército Rojo y tropas de Japón.
1931 Comienza en le II República Española una quema de iglesias y conventos, sobre todo en Madrid y Barcelona.
1850 Descubrimiento del asteroide Partépone
1813 La Asamblea del Año XIII aprueba la creación del Himno Nacional Argentino.
1678 Naufragan los navíos franceses al mando de Jean d’Estrées al intentar conquistar la isla neerlandesa de Curazao.
1502 España: Cristóbal Colón sale de Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz) para realizar su cuarto viaje a América.
0868 Se imprime en China, el primer libro de la historia: La Sutra del Diamante, por Wang Jie.
0330 Bizancio es renombrado como Nova Roma durante una ceremonia de dedicación, sin embargo, se continua conociendo más popularmente como Constantinopla.
Nacimientos Notables en Mayo 11 …
1989 Giovanni dos Santos, fubolista mexicano.
1987 Santiago Villard, tenista argentino.
1984 Andrés Iniesta, futbolista español.
1981 Lauren Jackson, jugadora de baloncesto australiana.
1978 Laetitia Casta, modelo y actriz francesa.
1977 Gonzalo Colsa, futbolista español.
1977 Pablo García, futbolista uruguayo.
1974 Benoît Magimel, actor francés.
1973 James Haven, actor estadounidense.
1971 Alberto Rodríguez, director de cine español.
1966 Christoph Schneider, baterista alemán (Rammstein).
1963 Natasha Richardson, actriz inglesa.
1952 Renaud Séchan, cantante francés.
1952 Shohreh Aghdashloo, actriz iraní.
1947 Butch Trucks, músico estadounidense (Allman Brothers Band).
1941 Eric Burdon, músico británico (The Animals).
1941 Pedro Crespo García, periodista y escritor español.
1940 Juan Downey, videoartista chileno.
1936 Carlos Lyra, compositor y músico brasileño.
1935 Francisco Umbral, escritor español, premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras en 1996 y premio Cervantes en 2000.
1934 Mark Boyle, artista británico.
1930 Edsger Dijkstra, informático holandés.
1928 Marco Ferreri, cineasta italiano.
1928 Yaacov Agam, artista israelí.
1924 Antony Hewish, radioastrónomo británico, Premio Nobel de Física en 1974.
1918 Richard Feynman, físico estadounidense, Premio Nobel en 1965.
1916 Camilo José Cela, escritor español, premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras en 1987, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1989 y premio Cervantes en 1995.
1911 Phil Silvers, actor estadounidense.
1904 Salvador Dalí, pintor español.
1899 Paulino Masip, escritor y guionista cinematográfico español.
1897 Kurt Gerron, director de cine alemán.
1896 Filippo De Pisis, pintor italiano.
1895 Jiddu Krishnamurti, filósofo indio.
1893 Martha Graham, coreógrafa, bailarina y profesora de danza estadounidense.
1888 Irving Berlin, compositor estadounidense.
1861 Frederick Russell Burnham una de las influencias más notables del fundador del escultismo.
1852 Charles Warren Fairbanks, vicepresidente estadounidense (1905-1909).
1842 José Pin y Soler, polígrafo español.
1835 Karlis Baumanis, compositor letón.
1826 Mamerto Esquiú, religioso argentino.
1824 Jean-Léon Gérôme, pintor y escultor francés.
1823 Alfred Stevens, pintor belga.
1811 Chang y Eng Bunker, siameses tailandeses.
1801 Henri Labrouste, arquitecto francés.
1752 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, antropólogo alemán.
1722 Petrus Camper, médico, naturalista y biólogo holandés.
1720 Barón de Münchhausen, escritor alemán.
0483 Justiniano I, emperador del Imperio Bizantino (527-565).
Fallecimientos Notables en Mayo 11 …
2009 Claudio Huepe, ingeniero, economista y político chileno (n. 1939).
2006 Floyd Patterson, boxeador estadounidense.
2006 Ricardo Fernández, actor peruano.
2004 Walter Wager, escritor estadounidense.
2003 José Manuel Lara, editor español.
2003 Noel Redding, bajista inglés (The Jimi Hendrix Experience).
2001 Douglas Adams, escritor británico: Guía del Autoestopista Galáctico.
2001 Jesús Aguirre, duque de Alba, teólogo y académico español.
1996 Ademir Marques de Menezes, futbolista brasileño.
1988 Kim Philby, famosos espía anglo-soviético.
1981 Bob Marley, músico jamaicano de reggae.
1980 Fernando Soto (Mantequilla), actor mexicano.
1976 Alvar Aalto, arquitecto y diseñador de muebles finlandés.
1973 Juan Eduardo Cirlot, poeta y crítico de arte español.
1973 Lex Barker, actor estadounidense.
1970 Johnny Hodges, músico de jazz estadounidense.
1963 Herbert Spencer Gasser, fisiologo estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1944.
1946 Pedro Henríquez Ureña, escritor dominicano.
1927 Juan Gris (Victoriano González), pintor español.
1920 William Dean Howells, escritor estadounidense.
1916 Karl Schwarzschild, astrónomo, matemático y físico alemán.
1916 Max Reger, compositor alemán.
1908 Juan-María Nepomuceno Jordán de Urriés y Ruiz de Arana, VI Marqués de Ayerbe.
1891 Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel, físico francés.
1891 Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli, botánico suizo.
1881 Henri Fréderic Amiel, escritor suizo.
1871 John Herschel, astrónomo y matemático inglés.
1849 Francisco Ortega, poeta y político mexicano.
1780 Nicolás Fernández de Moratín, dramaturgo español.
1778 William Pitt, el Viejo, político británico.
1708 Jules Hardouin Mansart, arquitecto francés.
1706 Juan de Ovando, poeta español.
1610 Matteo Ricci, misionero jesuita italiano.
1570 Alonso de Covarrubias, arquitecto español.
0912 León VI el Sabio, Emperador del Imperio Bizantino (886-912).
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History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1934 Dust storm sweeps from Great Plains across Eastern states
  • American Revolution

  • 1776 Washington recommends using German-American troops to Congress
  • Automotive

  • 1947 B.F. Goodrich Co. announces development of tubeless tire
  • Civil War

  • 1864 Confederate Cavalry General J.E.B. Stuart is mortally wounded
  • Cold War

  • 1988 Kim Philby dies
  • Crime

  • 1949 The Queen of Poisoners takes her toll
  • Disaster

  • 1985 Fire kills 50 at soccer stadium
  • General Interest

  • 1812 British prime minister assassinated
  • 1858 Minnesota enters the Union
  • 1987 Butcher of Lyon on trial
  • 1997 Deep Blue beats Kasparov
  • Hollywood

  • 2000 George Clooney makes return appearance on ER
  • Literary

  • 1942 Go Down, Moses, by William Faulkner, is published
  • Music

  • 1981 Bob Marley dies
  • Old West

  • 1896 Western writer Mari Sandoz is born
  • Presidential

  • 1977 President Carter puts in a long day at the office
  • Sports

  • 1997 Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess match
  • Vietnam War

  • 1961 President Kennedy orders more troops to South Vietnam
  • 1969 Paratroopers battle for “Hamburger Hill”
  • World War I

  • 1919 Germans prepare to protest Versailles Treaty terms
  • World War II

  • 1944 Allies attack the Gustav line in drive for Rome
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 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia


Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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