Marzo 21 en la historia: |
Lunes 20 Marzo, 2017 23:45

Marzo 21 en la historia:

Dr. Martlin Luther King, Jr. begins march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama; the Sharkville massacre in South Africa occurs; Wrongly incarcerated Randall Dale Adams is released from prison; Musician Johann Bach born.

Hoy en la Historia – Today in History,

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


The Sharkville Massacre in South Africa

Scores die in Sharpeville shoot-out

People lie dead and injured at the scene

Men, women and children fled ‘like rabbits’ as police opened fire

More than 50 black people were killed when police opened fire on a “peaceful” protest in the South African township of Sharpeville.Eye-witnesses said men, women and children fled ‘like rabbits’ as up to 300 officers began randomly shooting into a 5,000-strong crowd outside the municipal offices in Sharpeville.

Scores of injured have been taken to Baragwanath hospital near Johannesburg suffering gun-shot wounds.

It is not yet clear why the police, in armoured vehicles, opened fire at approximately 1315 local time today, although it is understood some protesters had been stone-throwing.

Non-violent campaign

Between 5,000 and 7,000 people had gathered at Sharpeville police station to protest against the pass laws, which they claim are designed by an apartheid government to seriously restrict their movement in white areas.

The laws, which require all black men and women to carry reference books containing their personal details including name, tax code and employer details, have this year been extended to all black women as well as men.

The law states that anyone found in a public place without their book will be arrested and detained for up to 30 days.

PAC leader, Robert Subukwe, said today’s march was intended to be the first of a five-day, non-violent campaign by black Africans to persuade the government to abolish the laws.

The aim was for all black Africans to leave their pass books at home and present themselves at police stations for arrest.

This, said Mr Subukwe, would cause prisons to become overcrowded, labour to dry up and the economy to grind to a halt.

But three hours after it began, the ‘peaceful’ gathering had turned into a blood-bath.

It is understood police attempted to disperse the crowd with a squadron of low-flying aircraft before drafting in extra reinforcements.

Police Commander D H Pienaar said: “It started when hordes of natives surrounding the police station.

“If they do these things, they must learn their lessons the hard way.”

In Context

Following the Sharpeville massacre, as it came to be known, the death toll rose to 69 and the number of injuries to 180.In the following days 77 Africans, many of whom were still in hospital, were arrested for questioning – most were later released.

On 24 March the government banned all public meetings in 24 magisterial districts of South Africa and on April 8 the PAC and the African National Congress (ANC) were banned and a state of emergency was declared in the country.

The following September 224 people lodged civil claims against the government but the government responded by introducing the Indemnity Act which relieved all officials of any responsibility for the Sharpeville atrocities.

No police officer involved in the massacre was ever convicted.


Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel


martin-luther-king-1965-selma-hero-fix-HThe three Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965 were part of the Voting Rights Movement underway in Selma, Alabama. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the Civil Rights Movement. Activists publicized the three protest marches to walk the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma to the Alabama state capital of Montgomery as showing the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression.

Johann Bach born

Johann Sebastian Bach (21 March 1685  – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He enriched established German styles through his skill in counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and the adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach’s compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Mass in B minor, two Passions, and over three hundred cantatas of which around two hundred survive. His music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth.



This Day in History

History Channel


Selma to Montgomery march begins

In the name of African-American voting rights, 3,200 civil rights demonstrators, led by Martin Luther King Jr., begin a historic march from Selma, Alabama, to the state capitol at Montgomery. Federalized Alabama National Guardsmen and FBI agents were on hand to provide safe passage for themarch, which twice had been turned back by Alabama state police at Selma’s Edmund Pettus Bridge.

In 1965, King and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) decided to make the small town of Selma the focus of their drive to win voting rights for African Americans in the South. Alabama’s governor, George Wallace, was a vocal opponent of the African-American civil rights movement, and local authorities in Selma had consistently thwarted efforts by the Dallas County Voters League and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to register local blacks. In spite of repeated registration campaigns, only 2 percent of eligible blacks were on the voter rolls. Furthermore, the local sheriff was notoriously brutal, and so seemed sure to respond in so galling a way as to attract national attention.

Did You Know?
Ralph Bunche

Ralph Bunche

Ralph Bunche, who participated in the Selma to Montgomery March with Martin Luther King Jr., won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950 for his successful negotiation of an Arab-Israeli truce in Palestine a year earlier.

King had won the 1964 Nobel Prize for Peace, and the world’s eyes turned to Selma after his arrival there in January 1965. He launched a series of peaceful protests, and by mid-February thousands of protesters in the Selma area had spent time in jail, including King himself.

On February 18, a group of white segregationists attacked some peaceful marchers in the nearby town of Marion. Jimmie Lee Jackson, a young African American, wasshot by a state trooperin the melee. After he died, King and the SCLC planned a massive march from Selma to Montgomery. Although Governor Wallace promised to prevent it from going forward, on March 7 some 500 demonstrators, led by SCLC leader Hosea Williams and SNCC leader John Lewis, began the 54-mile march to the state capital. After crossing Pettus Bridge, they were met by Alabama state troopers and posse men who attacked them with nightsticks, tear gas, and whips after they refused to turn back. Several of the protesters were severely beaten, and others ran for their lives. The incident was captured on national television and outraged many Americans. Hundreds of ministers, priests, and rabbis headed to Selma to join the voting rights campaign. King, who was in Atlanta at the time, promised to return to Selma immediately and lead another attempt.

martin-luther-king-1965-selma_9On March 9, King led more than 2,000 marchers, black and white, across the Edmund Pettus Bridge but found Highway 80 blocked again by state troopers. King paused the marchers and led them in prayer, whereupon the troopers stepped aside. King then turned the protesters around, believing that the troopers were trying to create an opportunity that would allow them to enforce a federal injunction prohibiting the march. This decision led to criticism from some marchers who called King cowardly. In Selma that night, James Reeb, a white minister from Boston, was fatally beaten by a group of segregationists.

Six days later, on March 15, President Lyndon Johnson went on national television to pledge his support to the Selma protesters and call for the passage of a new voting rights bill that he was introducing in Congress. “There is no Negro problem. There is no Southern problem. There is no Northern problem. There is only an American problem,” he said, “…Their cause must be our cause too. Because it is not just Negros, but really it is all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome.”

On March 21, U.S. Army troops and federalized Alabama National Guardsmen escorted the marchers across Edmund Pettus Bridge and down Highway 80. When the highway narrowed to two lanes, only 300 marchers were permitted, but thousands more rejoined the Alabama Freedom March as it came into Montgomery on March 25. On the steps of the Alabama State Capitol, King addressed live television cameras and a crowd of 25,000, just a few hundred feet from the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where he got his start as a minister in 1954. That August, President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act, which guaranteed African Americans the right to vote.

Between the passing of the act and the May 1966 primary, 122,000 blacks registered to votein the state. This represented a quarter of Alabama’s voters.



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Marzo 21 se celebra…
  • Cultura maya: festival Sitwa Raymi, celebrando el equinoccio de primavera.
  • Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial, proclamado en 1966 por la Asamblea General de la Naciones Unidas en memoria de la masacre de Sharpeville en Sudáfrica (1960).
  • Día Mundial de la Poesía establecido en 1999 por la UNESCO
  • Equinoccio: autumnal en el hemisferio sur y vernal en el norte.
  • Sudáfrica: Día de los Derechos de Hombre
  • Zodíaco: inicio del horóscopo.
Marzo 21 en la Historia del Mundo …
2001 en Afganistán, el gobierno talibán de Mohammed Omar destruye los dos gigantescos Budas de Bamiyan (siglo V), con la ayuda de ingenieros árabes y pakistaníes.
1999 se completa el primer vuelo en globo aerostático alrededor de la Tierra.
1990 Namibia se independiza de Sudáfrica.
1980 en EE. UU. el presidente Jimmy Carter anuncia un boicot de los Juegos Olímpicos de 1980 en Moscú, en protesta por la invasión soviética a Afganistán.
1970 en Ámsterdam, Irlanda gana la XV Edición de Eurovisión con el tema All Kinds of Everything de Dana.
1966 La Asamblea General de la ONU proclama el «Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial» en memoria de la Masacre de Sharpeville (Sudáfrica) en esta misma fecha en 1960.
1963 en EE. UU. se cierra oficialmente la prisión de la isla de Alcatraz, debido a la contaminación que producía en la bahía de San Francisco
1960 en Sudáfrica, la policía dispara contra una manifestación pacífica, matando a 69 personas de raza negra e hiriendo a 180. (Masacre de Sharpeville).
1957 en El Salvador, surgen otros cargos contra el comandante de la policía nacional Adán Torres Valencia, según declara en la FGR el teniente Domingo Monterrosa Ríos, que era jefe de la GN en San Pedro Masahuat cuando la anciana Francisca de la Paz fue asesinada en circunstancias misteriosas.
1937 en España finaliza la Batalla de Guadalajara (Guerra Civil Española).
1930 en Chile comienza a funcionar la Fuerza Aérea, fundada por Arturo Merino Benítez.
1844 primer día del calendario Bahá’í
1844 último día probable del fin del Mundo, según William Miller.
1843 Fin del Mundo vaticinado por el milenarista William Miller de acuerdo con su interpretación de las profecías de Daniel.
1829 España: un terremoto en Torrevieja de 6,6° en la escala de Richter sacudió la comarca alicantina de la Vega Baja causando 389 muertos y destruyendo 1895 casas.
1534 El español Pedro de Mendoza es designado adelantado del Río de la Plata.
1413 Enrique V se convierte en rey de Inglaterra.
1188 Antoku se convierte en el emperador de Japón.
0752 en Roma se elige al papa Esteban II. Muere tres días después antes de ser ordenado obispo de Roma, por lo que no se lo consideró un papa legítimo.
0717 Batalla de Vinchy entre Carlos Martel y Ragenfrid.
Nacimientos Notables en Marzo 21 …
1980 Deryck Whibley, músico canadiense (Sum 41).
1980 Ronaldinho, futbolista brasileño.
1978 Kevin Federline, bailarín, modelo y actor estadounidense.
1976 Liza Harper, actriz francesa.
1975 Fabricio Oberto, baloncestista argentino.
1968 DJ Premier, productor de rap y DJ de hip hop estadounidense.
1967 Jonas Berggren, músico sueco (Ace of Base).
1967 Maxim Reality, cantante británico (The Prodigy).
1966 Armando Archundia, árbitro méxicano de fútbol.
1964 Jesper Skibby, ciclista danés.
1962 Gilles Lalay, piloto de motociclismo francés.
1962 Matthew Broderick, actor estadounidense.
1962 Ronald Koeman, futbolista holandés.
1961 Lothar Matthäus, futbolista alemán.
1961 Shawn Lane, guitarrista estadounidense.
1960 Ayrton Senna, automovilista brasileño.
1959 Nobuo Uematsu, compositor de música para videojuegos japonés.
1958 Gary Oldman, actor estadounidense.
1957 Youssef Rzouga, poeta tunecino.
1956 Ingrid Kristiansen, atleta noruega.
1950 Roger Hodgson, cantante británico (Supertramp).
1950 Sergey Lavrov, político y diplomático de ruso.
1949 Slavoj Žižek, filósofo esloveno.
1946 Timothy Dalton, actor británico.
1940 Solomon Burke, cantante estadounidense.
1937 Pierre-Jean Rémy, diplomático y escritor francés.
1935 Brian Clough, entrenador inglés de fútbol.
1932 Joseph Silverstein, violinista estadounidense.
1932 Walter Gilbert, científico estadounidense, premio Nobel de Química en 1980.
1925 Hugo Koblet, ciclista suizo.
1922 Russ Meyer, director de cine estadounidense.
1921 Francisco Godia, piloto español de F1.
1915 Gitanillo de Triana (Rafael Vega), torero español.
1915 José Barros , compositor colombiano.
1913 George Abecassis, piloto británico de Fórmula 1.
1913 Rodney Arismendi, político uruguayo.
1904 Nikolaos Skalkottas, compositor griego.
1876 John Tewksbury, atleta estadounidense.
1839 Módest Músorgski, compositor nacionalista ruso.
1806 Benito Juárez, presidente y héroe mexicano.
1768 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, matemático y físico francés.
1763 Jean Paul, escritor alemán.
1685 Johann Sebastian Bach, compositor y organista alemán.
1626 San Pedro de San José Betancur, religioso español.
1521 Mauricio de Sajonia.
Fallecimientos Notables en Marzo 21 …
2008 Gabriel París Gordillo, militar, político y presidente colombiano (1955-1955) y (1957-1958) (n. 1910).
2008 Guillermo Jullian de la Fuente, arquitecto chileno (n. 1931).
2008 Ilyas Shurpayev, periodista ruso (n. 1975).
2005 Barney Martin, actor estadounidense.
1992 John Ireland, actor estadounidense.
1991 Leo Fender, fabricante de guitarras estadounidense.
1987 Robert Preston, actor estadounidense.
1958 Cyril M. Kornbluth, escritor estadounidense de fantasía y ciencia ficción.
1936 Alexander Glazunov, compositor ruso.
1915 Frederick Winslow Taylor, ingeniero y economista estadounidense.
1910 Gaspard-Félix Tournachon Nadar, fotógrafo francés.
1843 Guadalupe Victoria (José Fernández Félix), primer presidente de México.
1843 Robert Southey, poeta inglés.
1801 Andrea Luchesi, compositor italiano.
1762 Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, astrónomo francés.
1751 Johann Heinrich Zedler, editor alemán.
1729 John Law, economista escocés.
1617 Pocahontas, indígena estadounidense, hija de Powhatan.
1556 Thomas Cranmer, arzobispo de Canterbury.
1306 Roberto II, duque de Borgoña.


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1871 Stanley begins search for Livingstone
  • American Revolution

  • 1778 Massacre at Hancock’s Bridge
  • Automotive

  • 1960 Formula One champ Ayrton Senna born
  • Civil War

  • 1863 Edwin V. Sumner dies
  • Cold War

  • 1980 Carter tells U.S. athletes of Olympic boycott
  • Crime

  • 1963 Alcatraz closes its doors
  • Disaster

  • 1932 Series of tornadoes hits Southeast U.S.
  • General Interest

  • 1804 Napoleonic Code approved in France
  • 1918 Second Battle of the Somme begins
  • 1960 Massacre in Sharpeville
  • 1965 Selma to Montgomery march begins
  • Hollywood

  • 1980 Famous Dallas cliffhanger airs
  • Literary

  • 1678 Reward offered for identity of pamphlet author
  • Music

  • 1952 The Moondog Coronation Ball is history’s first rock concert
  • Old West

  • 1882 “Broncho Billy” Anderson born
  • Presidential

  • 1980 Carter announces Olympic boycott
  • Sports

  • 1980 Ronaldinho is born
  • Vietnam War

  • 1967 North Vietnam rejects Johnson overture
  • 1972 Khmer Rouge shell Phnom Penh
  • World War I

  • 1918 Germany begins major offensive on the Western Front
  • World War II

  • 1943 Another plot to kill Hitler foiled


 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia

Source: Associated Press | | |  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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