Marzo 16 en la historia: | bambinoides.com

Marzo 16 en la historia:

The Vietnam War’s My Lai massacre; Italian prime minister Aldo Moro kidnapped in Rome; AP Correspondent Terry Anderson kidnapped in Lebanon; Robert Goddard successfully tests the first liquid-fuel rocket; U.S. Military Academy established; Comedian Jerry Lewis born.

Today in History, Hoy en la Historia

 

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Was My Lai just one of many massacres in Vietnam War? In 1968 US soldiers murdered several hundred Vietnamese civilians in the single most infamous incident of the Vietnam War. The My Lai massacre is often held to have been an aberration but investigative journalist Nick Turse has uncovered evidence that war crimes were committed by the US military on a far bigger scale. In a war in which lip service was often paid to winning "hearts and minds", the US military had an almost singular focus on one defining measure of success in Vietnam: the body count - the number of enemy killed in action.Vietnamese forces, outgunned by their adversaries, relied heavily on mines and other booby traps as well as sniper fire and ambushes. Their methods were to strike and immediately withdraw. Unable to deal with an enemy that dictated the time and place of combat, US forces took to destroying whatever they could manage. If the Americans could kill more enemies - known as Viet Cong or VC - than the Vietnamese could replace, the thinking went, they would naturally give up the fight. To motivate troops to aim for a high body count, competitions were held between units to see who could kill the most. Rewards for the highest tally, displayed on "kill boards" included days off or an extra case of beer. Their commanders meanwhile stood to win rapid promotion. Very quickly the phrase - "If it's dead and Vietnamese, it's VC" - became a defining dictum of the war and civilian corpses were regularly tallied as slain enemies or Viet Cong. Civilians, including women and children, were killed for running from soldiers or helicopter gunships that had fired warning shots, or being in a village suspected of sheltering Viet Cong. At the time, much of this activity went unreported - but not unnoticed. Civilian casualties Researching post-traumatic stress disorder among Vietnam veterans, in 2001 I stumbled across a collection of war crimes investigations carried out by the military at the US National Archives. Box after box of criminal investigation reports and day-to-day paperwork had been long buried away and almost totally forgotten. Some detailed the most nightmarish descriptions. Others hinted at terrible events that had not been followed up. At that time the US military had at its disposal more killing power, destructive force, and advanced technology than any military in the history of the world. The amount of ammunition fired per soldier was 26 times greater in Vietnam than during World War II. By the end of the conflict, America had unleashed the equivalent of 640 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs on Vietnam. Vast areas dotted with villages were blasted with artillery, bombed from the air and strafed by helicopter gunships before ground troops went in on search-and-destroy missions. The phrase "kill anything that moves" became an order on the lips of some American commanders whose troops carried out massacres across their area of operations. While the US suffered more than 58,000 dead in the war, an estimated two million Vietnamese civilians were killed, another 5.3 million injured and about 11 million, by US government figures, became refugees in their own country. Today, if people remember anything about American atrocities in Vietnam, they recall the March 1968 My Lai massacre in which more than 500 civilians were killed over the course of four hours, during which US troops even took time out to eat lunch. Far bloodier operations, like one codenamed Speedy Express, should be remembered as well, but thanks to cover-ups at the highest levels of the US military, few are. General Julian Ewell, commander of the US 9th Infantry Division Image caption Gen Julian Ewell earned the nickname Butcher of the Delta during his time in Vietnam Industrial-scale slaughter In late 1968, the 9th Infantry Division, under the command of Gen Julian Ewell, kicked off a large-scale operation in the Mekong Delta, the densely populated deep south of Vietnam. In an already body count-obsessed environment, Ewell, who became known as the Butcher of the Delta, was especially notorious. He sacked subordinates who killed insufficient numbers and unleashed heavy firepower on a countryside packed with civilians. A whistle-blower in the division wrote to the US Army Chief of Staff William Westmoreland, pleading for an investigation. Artillery called in on villages, he reported, had killed women and children. Helicopter gunships had frightened farmers into running and then cut them down. Troops on the ground had done the same thing. The result was industrial-scale slaughter, the equivalent, he said, to a "My Lai each month". Just look at the ratio of Viet Cong reportedly killed to weapons captured, he told Westmoreland. Indeed, by the end of the operation Ewell's division claimed an enemy body count of close to 11,000, but turned in fewer than 750 captured weapons. Westmoreland ignored the whistle-blower, scuttled a nascent inquiry, and buried the files, but not before an internal Pentagon report endorsed some of the whistle-blower's most damning allegations. The secret investigation into Speedy Express remained classified for decades before I found it in buried in the National Archives. The military estimated that as many as 7,000 civilians were killed during the operation. More damning still, the analysis admitted that the "US command, in its extensive experience with large-scale combat operations in South East Asia, appreciated the inevitability of significant civilian casualties in the conduct of large operations in densely populated areas such as the Delta." Indeed, what the military admitted in this long secret report confirmed exactly what I also discovered in hundreds of talks and formal interviews with American veterans, in tens of thousands of pages of formerly classified military documents, and, most of all, in the heavily populated areas of Vietnam where Americans expended massive firepower. Survivors of a massacre by US Marines in Quang Tri Province told me what it was like to huddle together in an underground bomb shelter as shots rang out and grenades exploded above. Fearing that one of those grenades would soon roll into their bunker, a mother grabbed her young children, took a chance and bolted. "Racing from our bunker, we saw the shelter opposite ours being shot up," Nguyen Van Phuoc, one of those youngsters, told me. One of the Americans then wheeled around and fired at his mother, killing her. Many more were killed on that October day in 1967. Two of the soldiers involved were later court martialled but cleared of murder. Commemoration Last year, the Pentagon kicked off a 13-year programme to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the war. An entry on the official Vietnam War Commemoration website for My Lai describes it as an "incident" and the number killed is listed as "200" not 500. Speedy Express is referred to as "an operation that would eventually yield an enemy body count of 11,000". There is almost no mention of Vietnamese civilians. In a presidential proclamation on the website, Barack Obama distils the conflict down to troops slogging "through jungles and rice paddies… fighting heroically to protect the ideals we hold dear as Americans… through more than a decade of combat". Despite what the president might believe, combat was just a fraction of that war. The real war in Vietnam was typified by millions of men, women, and children driven into slums and refugee camps; by homes, hamlets, and whole villages burnt to the ground; by millions killed or wounded when war showed up on their doorstep. President Obama called the Vietnam War "a chapter in our nation's history that must never be forgotten". But thanks to cover-ups like that of Speedy Express, few know the truth to begin with. About the author: Nick Turse has been researching US military atrocities in the Vietnam War for more than a decade and has detailed his findings in a book Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam. A Pentagon spokesman, when asked for a statement about the evidence presented, said he doubted that more than 50 years after the US went to war in Vietnam, it would be possible for the military to provide an official statement in "a timely manner."

US Army helicopters pour machine-gun fire into the tree line to cover the advance of ground troops

A U.S. Marine shows a message written on the back of his flack vest at the Khe Sanh combat base in Vietnam on Feb. 21, 1968 during the Vietnam War. The quote reads, "Caution: Being a Marine in Khe Sanh may be hazardous to your health." Khe Sanh had been subject to increased rocket and artillery attacks from the North Vietnamese troops in the area. (AP Photo/Rick Merron)

A U.S. Marine shows a message written on the back of his flack vest at the Khe Sanh combat base in Vietnam on Feb. 21, 1968 during the Vietnam War. The quote reads, “Caution: Being a Marine in Khe Sanh may be hazardous to your health.” Khe Sanh had been subject to increased rocket and artillery attacks from the North Vietnamese troops in the area. (AP Photo/Rick Merron)

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Was My Lai just one of many massacres in Vietnam War?

In 1968 US soldiers murdered several hundred Vietnamese civilians in the single most infamous incident of the Vietnam War. The My Lai massacre is often held to have been an aberration but investigative journalist Nick Turse has uncovered evidence that war crimes were committed by the US military on a far bigger scale.

In a war in which lip service was often paid to winning “hearts and minds”, the US military had an almost singular focus on one defining measure of success in Vietnam: the body count – the number of enemy killed in action.Vietnamese forces, outgunned by their adversaries, relied heavily on mines and other booby traps as well as sniper fire and ambushes. Their methods were to strike and immediately withdraw.

Unable to deal with an enemy that dictated the time and place of combat, US forces took to destroying whatever they could manage. If the Americans could kill more enemies – known as Viet Cong or VC – than the Vietnamese could replace, the thinking went, they would naturally give up the fight.

To motivate troops to aim for a high body count, competitions were held between units to see who could kill the most. Rewards for the highest tally, displayed on “kill boards” included days off or an extra case of beer. Their commanders meanwhile stood to win rapid promotion.

Very quickly the phrase – “If it’s dead and Vietnamese, it’s VC” – became a defining dictum of the war and civilian corpses were regularly tallied as slain enemies or Viet Cong.

Civilians, including women and children, were killed for running from soldiers or helicopter gunships that had fired warning shots, or being in a village suspected of sheltering Viet Cong.

At the time, much of this activity went unreported – but not unnoticed.

Civilian casualties

Researching post-traumatic stress disorder among Vietnam veterans, in 2001 I stumbled across a collection of war crimes investigations carried out by the military at the US National Archives.

Box after box of criminal investigation reports and day-to-day paperwork had been long buried away and almost totally forgotten. Some detailed the most nightmarish descriptions. Others hinted at terrible events that had not been followed up.

At that time the US military had at its disposal more killing power, destructive force, and advanced technology than any military in the history of the world.

The amount of ammunition fired per soldier was 26 times greater in Vietnam than during World War II. By the end of the conflict, America had unleashed the equivalent of 640 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs on Vietnam.

Vast areas dotted with villages were blasted with artillery, bombed from the air and strafed by helicopter gunships before ground troops went in on search-and-destroy missions.

The phrase “kill anything that moves” became an order on the lips of some American commanders whose troops carried out massacres across their area of operations.

While the US suffered more than 58,000 dead in the war, an estimated two million Vietnamese civilians were killed, another 5.3 million injured and about 11 million, by US government figures, became refugees in their own country.

Today, if people remember anything about American atrocities in Vietnam, they recall the March 1968 My Lai massacre in which more than 500 civilians were killed over the course of four hours, during which US troops even took time out to eat lunch.

Far bloodier operations, like one codenamed Speedy Express, should be remembered as well, but thanks to cover-ups at the highest levels of the US military, few are.

Industrial-scale slaughter

Gen Julian Ewell earned the nickname Butcher of the Delta during his time in Vietnam

Gen Julian Ewell earned the nickname Butcher of the Delta during his time in Vietnam

In late 1968, the 9th Infantry Division, under the command of Gen Julian Ewell, kicked off a large-scale operation in the Mekong Delta, the densely populated deep south of Vietnam.

In an already body count-obsessed environment, Ewell, who became known as the Butcher of the Delta, was especially notorious. He sacked subordinates who killed insufficient numbers and unleashed heavy firepower on a countryside packed with civilians.

A whistle-blower in the division wrote to the US Army Chief of Staff William Westmoreland, pleading for an investigation. Artillery called in on villages, he reported, had killed women and children. Helicopter gunships had frightened farmers into running and then cut them down. Troops on the ground had done the same thing.

The result was industrial-scale slaughter, the equivalent, he said, to a “My Lai each month”.

Just look at the ratio of Viet Cong reportedly killed to weapons captured, he told Westmoreland.

Indeed, by the end of the operation Ewell’s division claimed an enemy body count of close to 11,000, but turned in fewer than 750 captured weapons.

Westmoreland ignored the whistle-blower, scuttled a nascent inquiry, and buried the files, but not before an internal Pentagon report endorsed some of the whistle-blower’s most damning allegations.

The secret investigation into Speedy Express remained classified for decades before I found it in buried in the National Archives.

The military estimated that as many as 7,000 civilians were killed during the operation. More damning still, the analysis admitted that the “US command, in its extensive experience with large-scale combat operations in South East Asia, appreciated the inevitability of significant civilian casualties in the conduct of large operations in densely populated areas such as the Delta.”

Indeed, what the military admitted in this long secret report confirmed exactly what I also discovered in hundreds of talks and formal interviews with American veterans, in tens of thousands of pages of formerly classified military documents, and, most of all, in the heavily populated areas of Vietnam where Americans expended massive firepower.

Survivors of a massacre by US Marines in Quang Tri Province told me what it was like to huddle together in an underground bomb shelter as shots rang out and grenades exploded above.

Fearing that one of those grenades would soon roll into their bunker, a mother grabbed her young children, took a chance and bolted.

“Racing from our bunker, we saw the shelter opposite ours being shot up,” Nguyen Van Phuoc, one of those youngsters, told me. One of the Americans then wheeled around and fired at his mother, killing her.

Many more were killed on that October day in 1967. Two of the soldiers involved were later court martialled but cleared of murder.

Commemoration

Last year, the Pentagon kicked off a 13-year programme to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the war. An entry on the official Vietnam War Commemoration website for My Lai describes it as an “incident” and the number killed is listed as “200” not 500.

Speedy Express is referred to as “an operation that would eventually yield an enemy body count of 11,000”.

There is almost no mention of Vietnamese civilians.

In a presidential proclamation on the website, Barack Obama distils the conflict down to troops slogging “through jungles and rice paddies… fighting heroically to protect the ideals we hold dear as Americans… through more than a decade of combat”.

Despite what the president might believe, combat was just a fraction of that war.

The real war in Vietnam was typified by millions of men, women, and children driven into slums and refugee camps; by homes, hamlets, and whole villages burnt to the ground; by millions killed or wounded when war showed up on their doorstep.

President Obama called the Vietnam War “a chapter in our nation’s history that must never be forgotten”. But thanks to cover-ups like that of Speedy Express, few know the truth to begin with.

About the author: Nick Turse has been researching US military atrocities in the Vietnam War for more than a decade and has detailed his findings in a book Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam.

A Pentagon spokesman, when asked for a statement about the evidence presented, said he doubted that more than 50 years after the US went to war in Vietnam, it would be possible for the military to provide an official statement in “a timely manner.”

(bbc.com/news/world-asia-23427726)

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”

1978:

Aldo Moro snatched at gunpoint

Former Italian prime minister Aldo Moro has been kidnapped in Rome.

Aldo Moro

The Red Brigade has said it kidnapped former Italian premier Aldo Moro

Mr Moro’s escort of five police bodyguards were killed when he was snatched at gunpoint from a car near a cafe in the morning rush-hour.

Chief police investigator Signor Moro said 12 gunmen took part in the attack on the former prime minister as he was being driven to parliament.

Police have set up dozens of roadblocks and all exits from the city are being watched. Helicopters are hovering overhead and anti-terrorist officers have been sent to the airport.

The extreme left-wing Red Brigade, in a telephone call to a Rome newspaper, has said it kidnapped the Christian Democratic leader, 61.

We kidnapped Aldo Moro
Red Brigade spokesman

A spokesman said: “We kidnapped Aldo Moro. He is only our first victim. We shall hit at the heart of the state.”The man demanded that the Turin trial of Renato Curcio, who is suspected of leading the Red Brigade, and 14 others accused of membership of the group should be suspended.

Witnesses reported seeing a white Fiat car move in front of Mr Moro’s vehicle, along with a man on a motorbike. The Fiat braked hard and Mr Moro’s car crashed into it.

Gunmen jumped out of the Fiat and others who had been waiting nearby raised pistols and sub-machine guns.

Trade unions have called a 24-hour general strike and workers have left many shops and offices in the city in a shocked reaction to the kidnapping of the much-respected statesman.

Investigators are examining spent bullet cases at the scene of the crime and among guns seized they found “a rarely used Soviet weapon”.

Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti has condemned those who took Mr Moro, saying they were “destroying the fabric of the nation and threatening to make it ungovernable”.

In Context

In the aftermath of the kidnapping, security forces made hundreds of raids in Rome, Milan, Turin and other cities in their search for Mr Moro.For two months, Mr Moro was held at a secret location in Rome allowing him to send letters to his family and politicians – begging the government to negotiate with his captors.

The government refused all pleas from family, friends and the Pope Paul VI to concede to any demands.

Eight weeks after he was kidnapped, the body of Mr Moro was found riddled with bullets in the boot of a car in Via Caetani in central Rome.

The Red Brigade was a left-wing terrorist group formed in 1970 with the sole aim of overthrowing capitalist Italy by violent means. Most of their leading members had been captured and imprisoned by the mid-1980s.

I was there

I was in the Navy stationed in Naples, Italy, when Moro was kidnapped by the Red Brigade.For what seemed like weeks the police went door to door in Naples looking for Moro.

It was a time when the Nato officers told us to stay real calm when approached by the Italian police. When driving down any road you would see police with machine guns ready to shoot whoever.

Strange days indeed.
Roy Pemberton, USA

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Images from Today’s History:

 

Associated Press

History Channel

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This Day in History

History Channel

1802

U.S. Military Academy established

The United States Military Academy–the first military school in the United States–is founded by Congress for the purpose of educating and training young men in the theory and practice of military science. Located at West Point, New York, the U.S. Military Academy is often simply known as West Point.

Located on the high west bank of New York’s Hudson River, West Point was the site of a Revolutionary-era fort built to protect the Hudson River Valley from British attack. In 1780, Patriot General Benedict Arnold, the commander of the fort, agreed to surrender West Point to the British in exchange for 6,000 pounds. However, the plot was uncovered before it fell into British hands, and Arnold fled to the British for protection.

Ten years after the establishment of the U.S. Military Academy in 1802, the growing threat of another war with Great Britain resulted in congressional action to expand the academy’s facilities and increase the West Point corps. Beginning in 1817, the U.S. Military Academy was reorganized by superintendent Sylvanus Thayer–later known as the “father of West Point”–and the school became one of the nation’s finest sources of civil engineers. During the Mexican-American War, West Point graduates filled the leading ranks of the victorious U.S. forces, and with the outbreak of the Civil War former West Point classmates regretfully lined up against one another in the defense of their native states.

In 1870, the first African-American cadet was admitted into the U.S. Military Academy, and in 1976, the first female cadets. The academy is now under the general direction and supervision of the department of the U.S. Army and has an enrollment of more than 4,000 students.

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:


597 a.C. Los babilonios capturan Jerusalén, y reemplazan al rey Joaquín por Sedequías.

37 En la isla de Capri Italia se registra un terremoto de 7,0 grados en la escala de Richter. (Véase Terremotos en la Antigüedad).

1190 En York (Inglaterra) los cruzados cristianos comienzan la Masacre de York; muchos judíos se suicidan para no ser obligados a someterse al bautismo.

1244 Los cátaros son inmolados en una gran hoguera en Montsegur (Francia).

1309 Nasr I es proclamado rey de Granada tras la abdicación de Muhammad III dos días antes.

1322 En Escocia, en el marco de la Primera Guerra de la Independencia, se libra la batalla de Boroughbridge.

1362 Los ejércitos aliados de Pedro I y Muhammad V, logran vencer al usurpador del trono de Granada, Muhammad VI, con lo que aquél recupera el trono.

1366 Enrique II se proclama rey de Castilla en la ciudad de Calahorra. (imagen dch)

1501 En la Sierra Bermeja de Estepona (Málaga) los moriscos atacan a los soldados cristianos comandados por el conde de Ureña y Alonso de Aguilar. La flor de la juventud andaluza de ambos bandos muere en esta acción.

1521 Hernando de Magallanes descubre las Filipinas.

1541 Se traslada de nuevo la capital de Guatemala al lugar que ocupó la primera Ciudad, fundada por Pedro de Alvarado, que fue destruida por un volcán.

1586 El rey de España, Felipe II, ordena por cédula real, que los frailes de la Nueva España adoctrinen a los naturales de estas tierras, no por caridad, sino por justicia y obligación.

1621 En la colonia inglesa de Playmouth (EE. UU.), los colonos reciben la visita del primer indígena mohegan, que los saluda en inglés, que había aprendido de unos pescadores: «¡Bienvenidos, ingleses! Mi nombre es Samoset».

1734 Aparece la “Gaceta de México”, primer periódico publicado en el país. (imagen izq)

1740 En Benidorm (Alicante), se descubre la Virgen del Sufragio.

1781 En Nuevo Reino de Granada (actual Colombia) se produce una manifestación multiclasista encabezada por Manuela Beltrán y un puñado de criollos desde El Socorro hasta la capital (Santa Fe de Bogotá) en contra de los españoles. Conocido como el Movimiento de los Comuneros.

1802 En West Point (Nueva York) se funda la academia militar para oficiales.

1812 El general San Martín recibe la orden de crear un regimiento de granaderos a caballo, que después llevó su nombre y que ejerce la custodia de los presidentes de la República Argentina.

1812 En Badajoz se libra la batalla de Badajoz (hasta el 6 de abril), en que las fuerzas británicas y portuguesas sitian y derrotan a los franceses durante la Guerra Peninsular.

1812 En la esquina de las actuales calles Moreno y Perú (Buenos Aires) Mariano Moreno inaugura la primera biblioteca pública de ese país.

1817 En Chile el capitán general Bernardo O’Higgins funda la escuela militar.

1818 En Venezuela, el ejército patriota es derrotado en la batalla de Semén. (imagen dch)

1818 En Cancha Rayada (Chile) se libra la segunda batalla de Cancha Rayada, en que las fuerzas
españolas atacan por sorpresa a las fuerzas argentino-chilenas al mando del general José de San Martín.

1819 En la batalla de la Puerta (Colombia) se distinguió notablemente el 6º. Escuadrón de Artillería y en especial el Artillero Manuel Menjibar, que fue condecorado con la Cruz Laureada de San Fernando.

1826 Son ejecutados por las autoridades españolas los patriotas cubanos Francisco Agüero y Manuel Andrés Sánchez.

1833 En el Teatro La Fenice (de Venecia) se estrena la ópera Beatrice di Tenda, de Bellini.

1837 Los carlistas derrotan a la división auxiliar inglesa mandada por Lacy Ewans en la Batalla de Oriamendi.

1851 Firma del Concordato entre España y la Santa Sede para solucionar los problemas existentes entre el Estado y la Iglesia.

1871 Se estrena en Madrid la ópera “Marina”, de Emilio Arrieta.

1895 En el Teatro de la Zarzuela (de Madrid) se estrena la ópera “La Dolores”, de Tomás Bretón  (imagen izq) con libreto de José Feliú y Codina.

1896 Por primera vez se abre al público en Madrid la Biblioteca Nacional de España.

1896 En Cuba el general Maceo combate una columna española al mando del coronel Suárez cerca de Candelaria.

1913 Apertura en Vitoria de la primera Escuela Civil de Aviación que funcionó en España.

1916 Se funda en Pola de Siero, el Club Siero.

1924 Publicación de “Marinero en tierra”, del poeta español Rafael Alberti.

1925 Empiezan las emisiones de EAJ-5, Radio Sevilla.

1925 En Málaga se inaugura el cable trasatlántico destinado a unir Italia y España con América, cursándose telegramas entre los reyes de Italia y España, entre Primo de Rivera y Mussolini, así como con el presidente de los Estados Unidos.

1931 El poeta granadino Federico García Lorca, pronuncia una conferencia y lectura de “Poeta en Nueva York”  (imagen dch) en la Residencia de Señoritas de Madrid.

1935 En la Alemania nazi, Adolf Hitler anuncia el incumplimiento del Tratado de Versalles con la creación de la Wehrmacht (fuerzas armadas).

1936 Durante la IIª República española en Valdecunas (Oviedo) se produce el asalto a la iglesia parroquial e incendio en la calle de las Imágenes.

1936 En Logroño son incendiadas las iglesias de  Nájera, Navarrete y Ladero.

1936 En Buitrago (Madrid) se produce incendio de la iglesia parroquial de Santa María con sus reliquias góticas, entre ellas, un Santo Cristo del siglo XI.

1936 En Santa Cruz de Mudela (Ciudad Real) se produce el incendio de la iglesia parroquial y capilla de la Concepción.

1936 En Silla (Valencia) se produce el asalto a la iglesia parroquial, quemando las imágenes en la calle.

1936 En Villanueva de Castellón (Valencia) se produce el asalto al asilo de San Antonio y se obliga a huir a los religiosos. Además un muerto y numerosos heridos.

1936 En Torreagüero (Murcia) se produce el incendio iglesia parroquial y las imágenes tiradas a un arroyo.

1936 En Beniaján (Murcia) se produce el saqueo de archivos parroquiales. (imagen izq)

1936 En Cehegín (Murcia) se produce el asalto e incendio de la casa del cura, iglesia de Santa María de la Concepción y ermita de la Peña.

1936 En Santoña (Santander) es agredido muy grave un falangista.

1936 En Jumilla (Murcia) un obrero socialista muerto que había detenido en febrero a varios derechistas, por lo que son detenidos muchos falangistas, la multitud asalta la prisión y exige se les entregue a los prisioneros, matando a dos a cuchilladas y a un guardia a tiros. Por los incidentes sucedidos el día anterior, milicianos golpearon a los falangistas Pedro Cutillas Sánchez y Jesús Martínez Eraso con los machetes que quitaron a la Guardia Civil, a la que habían desarmado los miembros del Frente Popular. Después los apalearon y arrastraron.

1936 En Alcaudete el ayuntamiento detiene a 25 derechistas.

1936 En Saracho (Álava) es incendiada la iglesia parroquial.

1938 Comienzan tres días de bombardeos aéreos sobre la población civil de Barcelona por los sublevados en la Guerra Civil Española causando más de mil muertos.

1938 Durante la Guerra Civil española se producen intensos bombardeos aéreos sobre Barcelona.

1943 Comienza la I Legislatura de las Cortes Españolas (1943-1946). (imagen dch) 

1948 El Estado Mayor del Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Costa Rica, se reúne en Santa María de Dota, por vez primera.

1963 En Bali erupciona el monte Agung. Mueren 11.000 personas.

1966 En EE. UU. se lanza el Gemini 8, el 12.º vuelo tripulado estadounidense y el primero que se acopla con el vehículo Agena.

1968 Secuestro del arzobispo de Guatemala Mario Casariego por el Movimiento Antiguerrillero Nuevo Orden, derechista.

1968 En la Guerra de Vietnam, soldados estadounidenses matan a centenares de civiles desarmados (Masacre de My Lai).

1969 En Maracaibo (Venezuela) 155 personas mueren cuando un avión DC-9 de Venezuelan Airlines se estrella después de despegar.

1976 En el Reino Unido renuncia el primer ministro Harold Wilson, alegando razones personales.

1976 Se crea en España la Fundación Ramón Areces para el fomento y desarrollo de la investigación científica y técnica, la educación y la cultura.

1978 En Portsall Rocks, a cinco km de la costa de Bretaña, el super tanque Amoco Cádiz  (imagen izq) se parte en dos. Produce el quinto derrame de la historia.

1980 Don Juan Carlos I y doña Sofía realizan la primera visita a Dinamarca de unos reyes españoles.

1981 Los ministros de Asuntos Exteriores de la CE acuerdan en Bruselas el establecimiento de un pasaporte único europeo.

1987 Primera entrega de los premios Goya en España.

1988 En Irak se produce el ataque químico a Halabja, produciendo alrededor de 7000 muertos y 10.000 heridos.

1988 Abortado en Panamá un intento de un grupo de militares de forzar la retirada del general Noriega.

1994 España es, a esta fecha, el país europeo más afectado por el SIDA, con 22.655 casos acumulados desde 1981.

1995 En EE. UU., el estado de Misisipi ratifica la 13.º Enmienda (de 1865), convirtiéndose en el último Estado que aprueba la abolición de la esclavitud.

1997 La Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (ARENA) gana las elecciones legislativas y municipales en El Salvador, aunque las primeras con escasa ventaja sobre el Frente Farabundo Martí. (imagen dch)

1998 En el Vaticano, el papa Juan Pablo II pide perdón por la inactividad y silencio de muchos católicos durante el Holocausto.

1999 Curro Romero cumple 40 años de alternativa toreando en la plaza donde se doctoró en el año 1959, en Valencia, en la feria de las Fallas.

2001 Empresarios vascos reciben en sedes de HB instrucciones de cómo pagar a ETA.

2002 Aznar pacta con Francia liberalizar parcialmente el mercado energético, que acepta abrir la competencia a partir del 2004.

2003 En todo el mundo se produce la vigilia más grande de la historia, como parte de las protestas mundiales contra la invasión de EE. UU. a Iraq.

2003 En la Franja de Gaza, un soldado israelí aplasta con un bulldozer a la activista estadounidense Rachel Corrie (23), que impedía la demolición de hogares palestinos.

2005 Israel oficialmente devuelve Jericó al Estado palestino.

2006 La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas vota por unanimidad el establecimiento del Consejo de Derechos Humanos de la ONU.

2006 Entra en funcionamiento en España el primer DNI electrónico que incorpora un chip identificatorio y permite la firma electrónica con plena validez legal. (imagen izq)

2008 Se celebra el gran concierto Paz sin Fronteras en pleno Puente Internacional Simón Bolívar con la presentación de Juanes, Juan Luis Guerra, Carlos Vives y Juan Fernando Velasco; con una asistencia de más de 100.000 personas de Venezuela y Colombia.

2010 Cerca de París, la banda terrorista ETA asesina (por primera vez en su historia) a un gendarme, durante un tiroteo por ambos bandos.

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 Hispanópolis:

Marzo 16 se celebra…
  • centenario de la muerte de Juan de Dios Peza.
Marzo 16 en la Historia del Mundo …
2008 Se realiza el concierto Paz Sin Fronteras en la frontera colombo-venezolana.
1988 Se produce el ataque químico a Halabja, Iraq, en el cual murieron alrededor de 7000 personas.
1969 155 personas mueren cuando un avión DC-9 de Venezuelan Airlines se estrella después de despegar en Maracaibo, Venezuela.
1935 Adolf Hitler anuncia el incumplimiento del Tratado de Versalles con la creación de la Wehrmacht, las fuerzas armadas de la Alemania nazi.
1895 Se estrena la ópera La Dolores, de Tomás Bretón con libreto de José Feliú y Codina en el Teatro de la Zarzuela de Madrid.
1833 Se estrena la ópera Beatrice di Tenda, de Bellini, en el Teatro La Fenice de Venecia.
1818 Venezuela: El ejército patriota es derrotado el la Batalla de Semén.
1817 Chile: El Capitán General don Bernardo O’Higgins funda la Escuela Militar.
1802 Estados Unidos: Se funda la academia militar para oficiales de West Point, Nueva York.
1740 Hallazgo de la Virgen del Sufragio en Benidorm.
0597 adC – Los babilonios capturan Jerusalén, y reemplazan a Jehoiachin con Zedekiah por Rey.
Nacimientos Notables en Marzo 16 …
1989 Theo Walcott, futbolista inglés.
1980 Felipe Reyes, jugador de baloncesto, medalla de oro en el Mundobasket 2006.
1979 Edison Méndez, futbolista ecuatoriano.
1979 Leena Peisa, músico finlandés (Lordi).
1977 Mónica Cruz, actriz y bailarina española.
1975 Sienna Guillory, actriz británica.
1973 Rodrigo Vidal, actor mexicano.
1970 Rafa Pascual, voleibolista español.
1967 Lauren Graham, actriz estadounidense.
1965 Belén Rueda, actriz española.
1964 Gore Verbinski, director de cine estadounidense.
1964 Pascal Richard, ciclista suizo.
1961 Todd McFarlane, historietista canadiense.
1959 Flavor Flav, rapero estadounidense (Public Enemy).
1959 Jens Stoltenberg, Primer Ministro de Noruega.
1958 Jorge Ramos, presentador de televisión mexicano.
1953 Isabelle Huppert, actriz francesa.
1953 Richard Stallman, programador informático estadounidense, promotor del software libre.
1949 Sergio Denis, cantante y compositor argentino.
1949 Victor Garber, actor canadiense.
1948 Margaret Weis, escritora estadounidense.
1948 Michael Bruce, guitarrista de Alice Cooper.
1940 Bernardo Bertolucci, director de cine italiano.
1939 Carlos Salvador Bilardo, futbolista, entrenador, médico y periodista argentino.
1937 Amos Tversky, psicólogo israelí, pionero la ciencia cognitiva.
1935 Teresa Berganza, soprano española.
1928 Christa Ludwig, mezzosoprano alemana.
1927 Vladimir Komarov, cosmonauta soviético.
1926 Jerry Lewis, actor y comediante estadounidense.
1925 Luis E. Miramontes, químico mexicano, coinventor de la píldora anticonceptiva.
1920 Traudl Junge, secretaria personal de Adolf Hitler.
1918 Frederick Reines, físico, premio Nobel de Física en 1995.
1917 Samael Aun Weor, escritor colombiano.
1911 Josef Mengele, médico alemán nazi.
1908 Robert Rossen, director de cine norteamericano.
1906 Francisco Ayala, escritor español.
1892 César Vallejo, poeta peruano.
1890 Solomon Mikhoels, actor y director de teatro ruso.
1889 Reggie Walker, atleta surafricano.
1856 Eugène Bonaparte, emperador de Francia.
1849 Joaquín María Arnau Miramón, arquitecto español.
1839 Sully Prudhomme, poeta francés, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1901.
1800 Emperador Ninko del Japón.
1789 Georg Simon Ohm, físico alemán al que se atribuye la Ley de Ohm.
1774 Matthew Flinders, navegante y cartógrafo británico.
1773 Juan Ramón González de Balcarce, político y líder militar argentino.
1751 James Madison, presidente de los Estados Unidos.
Fallecimientos Notables en Marzo 16 …
2009 Abdelkebir Khatibi, escritor y ensayista marroquí (n. 1938).
2006 José Noriega, cantante de tonada asturiana.
2003 Rachel Corrie, activista estadounidense.
1995 Heinrich Sutermeister, compositor de ópera suizo.
1978 Renny Ottolina, presentador de la TV venezolana, cineasta y candidato presidencial.
1975 T-Bone Walker, cantante estadounidense.
1970 Tammi Terrell, cantante estadounidense.
1964 Lino Enea Spilimbergo, artista argentino.
1959 António Botto, poeta portugués.
1942 Alexander von Zemlinsky, compositor austriaco.
1940 Selma Lagerlöf, escritora sueca, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1909.
1935 John James Richard Macleod, médico inglés, premio Nobel de Medicina en 1923.
1930 Miguel Primo de Rivera, militar, presidente del Gobierno español (1923-1930).
1914 Charles Albert Gobat, político suizo, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1902.
1898 Aubrey Beardsley, ilustrador inglés.
1736 Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, músico italiano.
1670 Johann Rudolf Glauber, químico y farmacólogo alemán.
0455 Valentiniano III, emperador romano.
0037 Tiberio, emperador de Roma.
.

.

History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1802 U.S. Military Academy established
  • American Revolution

  • 1751 “Father of the Constitution” is born
  • Automotive

  • 2003 Craven edges out Busch in closest NASCAR finish
  • Civil War

  • 1865 Battle of Averasboro, North Carolina
  • Cold War

  • 1988 Reagan orders troops into Honduras
  • Crime

  • 1881 A virtuous woman turns murderous
  • Disaster

  • 1978 Supertanker wrecks off French coast
  • General Interest

  • 1926 First liquid-fueled rocket
  • 1968 My Lai massacre takes place in Vietnam
  • 1985 Terry Anderson kidnapped
  • Hollywood

  • 2005 Robert Blake acquitted of wife’s murder
  • Literary

  • 1850 The Scarlet Letter is published
  • Music

  • 1970 Motown soul singer Tammi Terrell dies
  • Old West

  • 1903 Judge Roy Bean dies
  • Presidential

  • 1751 James Madison is born
  • Sports

  • 1953 Baseball owners give Veeck cold shoulder
  • Vietnam War

  • 1968 U.S. troops massacre South Vietnamese
  • 1975 South Vietnamese flee Pleiku and Kontum
  • World War I

  • 1916 German Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz resigns
  • World War II

  • 1945 Fighting on Iwo Jima ends
.

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 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia


Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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Confrontando la información, - el pasado y el presente...
"Estudia el pasado si quieres pronosticar el futuro" (Confucio)
“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)