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Junio 30 en la Historia

Aztecs revolt against Spanish rule; Adolf Hitler purges rivals in Nazi Germany; Beirut ordeal ends for US hostages; America’s food and drug safety take a big step forward; Baroness Thatcher takes her place in Lords; ‘Gone With the Wind’ published; Tonya Harding banned from figure skating; Singer Lena Horne born.

Hoy en la Historia,

Junio 30

en la Historia,

Today in History,


Spanish retreat from Aztec capital

Faced with an Aztec revolt against their rule, forces under the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes fight their way out of Tenochtitlan at heavy cost. Known to the Spanish as La Noche Triste, or “the Night of Sadness,” many soldiers drowned in Lake Texcoco when the vessel carrying them and Aztec treasures hoarded by CortÝs sank. Montezuma II, the Aztec emperor who had become merely a subject of Cortes in the previous year, was also killed during the struggle; by the Aztecs or the Spanish, it is not known.

Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325 A.D. by a wandering tribe of hunters and gatherers on islands in Lake Texcoco, near the present site of Mexico City. In only one century, this civilization grew into the Aztec Empire, due largely to its advanced system of agriculture. The empire came to dominate central Mexico and by the ascendance of Montezuma II in 1502 had reached its greatest extent, reaching as far south as perhaps modern-day Nicaragua. At the time, the empire was held together primarily by Aztec military strength, and Montezuma II set about establishing a bureaucracy, creating provinces that would pay tribute to the imperial capital of Tenochtitlan. The conquered peoples resented the Aztec demands for tribute and victims for the religious sacrifices, but the Aztec military kept rebellion at bay.


Meanwhile, Hernan Cortes, a young Spanish-born noble, came to Hispaniola in the West Indies in 1504. In 1511, he sailed with Diego Velazquez to conquer Cuba and twice was elected mayor of Santiago, the capital of Hispaniola. In 1518, he was appointed captain general of a new Spanish expedition to the American mainland. Velazquez, the governor of Cuba, later rescinded the order, and Cortes sailed without permission. He visited the coast of Yucatan and in March 1519 landed at Tabasco in Mexico’s Bay of Campeche with 500 soldiers, 100 sailors, and 16 horses. There, he won over the local Indians and was given a female slave, Malinche–baptized Marina–who became his mistress and later bore him a son. She knew both Maya and Aztec and served as an interpreter. The expedition then proceeded up the Mexican coast, where Cortes founded Veracruz, mainly for the purpose of having himself elected captain general by the colony, thus shaking off the authority of Velazquez and making him responsible only to King Charles V of Spain.

At Veracruz, Cortes trained his army and then burned his ships to ensure loyalty to his plans for conquest. Having learned of political strife in the Aztec Empire, Cortes led his force into the Mexican interior. On the way to Tenochtitlan, he clashed with local Indians, but many of these peoples, including the nation of Tlaxcala, became his allies after learning of his plan to conquer their hated Aztec rulers. Hearing of the approach of Cortes, with his frightful horses and sophisticated weapons, Montezuma II tried to buy him off, but Cortes would not be dissuaded. On November 8, 1519, the Spaniards and their 1,000 Tlaxcaltec warriors were allowed to enter Tenochtitlan unopposed.

Montezuma suspected them to be divine envoys of the god Quetzalcoatl, who was prophesied to return from the east in a “One Reed” year, which 1519 was on the Aztec calendar. The Spaniards were greeted with great honor, and Cortes seized the opportunity, taking Montezuma hostage so that he might govern the empire through him. His mistress, Marina, was a great help in this endeavor and succeeded in convincing Montezuma to cooperate fully.

In the spring of 1520, Cortes learned of the arrival of a Spanish force from Cuba, led by Panfilo Narvaez and sent by Velazquez to deprive Cortes of his command. Cortes led his army out of Tenochtitlan to meet them, leaving behind a garrison of 80 Spaniards and a few hundred Tlaxcaltecs to govern the city. Cortes defeated Narvaez and enlisted Narvaez’ army into his own. When he returned to Tenochtitlan in June, he found the garrison under siege from the Aztecs, who had rebelled after the subordinate that Cortes left in command of the city massacred several Aztec chiefs, and the population on the brink of revolt. On June 30, under pressure and lacking food, Cortes and his men fled the capital at night. In the fighting that ensued, Montezuma was killed–in Aztec reports by the Spaniards, and in Spanish reports by an Aztec mob bitter at Montezuma’s subservience to Spanish rule. He was succeeded as emperor by his brother, Cuitlahuac.

During the Spaniards’ retreat, they defeated a large Aztec army at Otumba and then rejoined their Tlaxcaltec allies. In May 1521, Cortes returned to Tenochtitlan, and after a three-month siege the city fell. This victory marked the fall of the Aztec empire. Cuauhtemoc, Cuitlahuac’s successor as emperor, was taken prisoner and later executed, and Cortes became the ruler of vast Mexican empire.

The Spanish conquistador led an expedition to Honduras in 1524 and in 1528 returned to Spain to see the king. Charles made him Marques del Valle but refused to name him governor because of his quarrels with Velazquez and others. In 1530, he returned to Mexico, now known as New Spain, and found the country in disarray. After restoring some order, he retired to his estate south of Mexico City and sent out maritime expeditions from the Pacific coast. In 1540, he returned to Spain and was neglected by the court. He died in 1547.

– History Channel

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


Beirut ordeal ends for US hostages

The hostages

The hostages are all relieved to be free

All 39 Americans being held captive by the Shia Muslim Amal militia in Lebanon have been released, after almost three weeks in captivity.

Their freedom was secured after intervention by the Syrian President Hafiz al-Assad. The White House said no deal had been done with the captors.

The hostages were driven in a Red Cross convoy from Beirut to Syrian capital Damascus, 17 days after the plane they were on was hijacked by two members of the extremist Islamic Jihad group.

Most of the passengers were freed hours after the Lebanese gunmen diverted the TWA Rome – Athens flight to Beirut on 14 June, demanding the release of 766 Shia Muslims imprisoned in Israel.

But 40 Americans were forced to remain on the plane. One of their number – US Navy diver Robert Stethem – was killed on the first day of the crisis and his body dumped on the airport tarmac.

Thirty-five of the Americans were imprisoned in various Beirut safe-houses by the Amal militia for most of their ordeal, but four were being held by the radical Hezbollah group.

The freedom of these men is reported to have been obtained by President Assad, who contacted two of the most extreme Shia leaders to order their release.

We thank you from the bottom of our hearts
Hostage Allyn Conwell

The group finally left for Damascus at 1545 (1245 GMT) after 24 hours of confusion and uncertainty about whether they would be freed.

Some of the hostages praised their treatment by the Amal militia, saying it had guaranteed the group’s safety and looked after their welfare.

The hostages’ spokesman, Allyn Conwell, told reporters at a news conference they were all very relieved to be free.

“For anyone and everyone who has prayed for us, talked for us, waited for us or hoped for us – we thank you from the bottom of our hearts,” he said.

In Context

The hostages were safely transferred to Frankfurt and then to the US after their release.The White House said it knew the identity of the two original hijackers, but the men have never been brought to justice.

The American Diplomatic Security Service is still offering a reward of $5m (£3.17m) for information leading to their capture.

The US Navy named the warship USS Stethem after the sailor killed by the gunmen during the hijack.



Baroness Thatcher takes her place in Lords

Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher has taken her place in the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven.

She is expected to take part in her first debate in two days time, speaking out against the government on the Maastricht Treaty.

Although the quieter, more reflective House of Lords is not regarded as the natural battleground of the aggressive former prime minister, her allies hope she will use the Lords to keep her policies on the agenda.

During her acceptance ceremony she said: “I, Margaret Baroness Thatcher, so swear by almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, her heirs and successors according to law, so help me God.”


(AP Photo/Chris Harris/The Times/Pool)

She announced her decision to leave the Commons seven months after being ousted from Number 10 by her own party.

At the time the former prime minister indicated she wanted to remain in politics.

She said her decision to leave the Commons would give her more freedom to speak her mind, and made it clear she would fight any proposal for European integration that would threaten British sovereignty.

But she was careful to pledge her loyalty to Prime Minister John Major, whose government is now occupied with managing splits within the party over European policy.

Anticipating Baroness Thatcher’s expected intervention on Maastricht, Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd today strongly defended the treaty, saying this was not the moment to turn “timid and sour” on Europe.

He said: “It is not sensible when you are beginning to win the arguments to back off into some massive and destructive isolation by seeking to destroy the Treaty of Maastricht.”


In Context

Margaret Thatcher was elected MP for Finchley in 1959 and succeeded Edward Heath as leader of the Conservative party in 1975.She became Britain’s first woman prime minister in 1979, and by the time she was ousted by her own party in 1990 she was the longest serving prime minister of the 20th century.

Mrs Thatcher used her appointment to the House of Lords to continue to make her views heard, particularly on European issues.

Ill health forced her to abandon her regular public speaking engagements in 2002.



Video by thatcheritescot | YouTube


Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel


This Day in History

History Channel


Gone with the Wind published

Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind, one of the best-selling novels of all time and the basis for a blockbuster 1939 movie, is published on this day in 1936.


In 1926, Mitchell was forced to quit her job as a reporter at the Atlanta Journal to recover from a series of physical injuries. With too much time on her hands, Mitchell soon grew restless. Working on a Remington typewriter, a gift from her second husband, John R. Marsh, in their cramped one-bedroom apartment, Mitchell began telling the story of an Atlanta belle named Pansy O’Hara.

gone-with-the-wind-published-jun-30-margaret-mitchell_2In tracing Pansy’s tumultuous life from the antebellum South through the Civil War and into the Reconstruction era, Mitchell drew on the tales she had heard from her parents and other relatives, as well as from Confederate war veterans she had met as a young girl. While she was extremely secretive about her work, Mitchell eventually gave the manuscript to Harold Latham, an editor from New York’s MacMillan Publishing. Latham encouraged Mitchell to complete the novel, with one important change: the heroine’s name. Mitchell agreed to change it to Scarlett, now one of the most memorable names in the history of literature.

Published in 1936, Gone with the Wind caused a sensation in Atlanta and went on to sell millions of copies in the United States and throughout the world. While the book drew some criticism for its romanticized view of the Old South and its slaveholding elite, its epic tale of war, passion and loss captivated readers far and wide. By the time Mitchell won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1937, a movie project was already in the works. The film was produced by Hollywood giant David O. Selznick, who paid Mitchell a record-high $50,000 for the film rights to her book.

After testing hundreds of unknowns and big-name stars to play Scarlett, Selznick hired British actress Vivien Leigh days after filming began. Clark Gable was also on board as Rhett Butler, Scarlett’s dashing love interest. Plagued with problems on set, Gone with the Wind nonetheless became one of the highest-grossing and most acclaimed movies of all time, breaking box office records and winning nine Academy Awards out of 13 nominations.

Though she didn’t take part in the film adaptation of her book, Mitchell did attend its star-studded premiere in December 1939 in Atlanta. Tragically, she died just 10 years later, after she was struck by a speeding car while crossing Atlanta’s Peachtree Street. Scarlett, a relatively unmemorable sequel to Gone with the Wind written by Alexandra Ripley, was published in 1992.


Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Junio 30 se celebra…
  • España, Irún – Fiestas patronales en honor a San Marcial
  • Guatemala – Día de la revolución liberal
  • R. D. del Congo – Aniversario de la independencia, obtenida en 1960.
Junio 30 en la Historia del Mundo …
2009 Se cumple el plazo establecido, según el acuerdo de seguridad entre Estados Unidos e Iraq, para la retirada de las fuerzas de combate estadounidenses, que han participado en la guerra, de los centros poblados del país árabe.
2009 Se estrella en el océano Índico el vuelo 626 de Yemenia, cerca de las Comoras, en un trayecto que unía Saná, Yemen, con el archipiélago.
2006 Argentina:Queda eliminada de la Copa Mundial de la FIFA 2006
2005 España: El Congreso de los Diputados aprueba definitivamente la ley que autoriza el matrimonio civil entre personas del mismo sexo.
2002 Bolivia: Se realizan las elecciones presidenciales en las cuales es electo Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada con 22,5% de los sufragios.
2002 Brasil se corona campeón de la Copa Mundial de Fútbol de Japón y Corea del Sur al derrotar por 2 goles a 0 a la selección de Alemania.
2002 España: Las instituciones bancarias dejan de cambiar le peseta, sacada de curso legal el 28 de febrero anterior. Desde entonces, el cambio sólo es posible en el Banco de España.
2001 Historia de la Informática: La empresa Netscape Communications publica la versión 7.1 del navegador web Netscape Navigator, última versión del programa publicada en varios idiomas (alemán, francés, inglés y japonés).
2000 Dinamarca: Tragedia de Roskilde, Nueve personas mueren aplastadas en concierto un musical del grupo Pearl Jam.
2000 Japón: Bajos el auspicio de Nintendo, la empresa desarrolladora de videojuegos Brownie Brown abre sus puertas.
1997 Hong Kong: Caduca el tratado de Nanjing y la península vuelve a pertenecer a China .
1996 Argentina: En la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, por primera vez, se realizan las elecciones para nombrar un Jefe de Gobierno, es electo Fernando de la Rúa.
1989 Sudán: Omar Hassan al-Bashir dirige un golpe militar para tomar el control del país.
1960 El Congo Belga alcanza la independencia de Bélgica con el nombre de República Democrática del Congo.
1949 España: La Real Academia Española designa a Vicente Aleixandre como miembro académico. El mismo ingresa a dicha institucón el 22 de enero de 1950 para ocupar el sillón “O”.
1943 II Guerra Mundial: los aliados inician la llamada “Operación Cartwheel” destinada a aislar Rabaul, la principal base japonesa en el océano Pacífico.
1934 Alemania: Noche de los cuchillos largos, durante la noche de este día y la madrugada del 1 de julio y por orden de Adolf Hitler se lleva a cabo la purga de los principales dirigentes de la Sturmabteilung.
1908 Rusia: Cae en Siberia, un bólido enorme, conocido como “el meteorito de Tunguska”.
1906 Estados Unidos: El presidente, Theodore Roosevelt, firma una ley que autoriza al gobierno federal a inspeccionar las industrias alimentarias y obliga a los fabricantes a especificar la lista de ingredientes.
1898 Una patrulla de soldados españoles al mando de Saturnino Martín Cerezo, cae en una emboscada en Baler, Filipinas, dando comienzo al sitio, que se prolongaría durante 337 días, de los que se conocerían como Los Últimos de Filipinas.
1688 Revolución Gloriosa: Los Siete Inmortales piden a Guillermo III de Inglaterra que invada Inglaterra para evitar la imposición de un gobierno católico por para de Jacobo II de Inglaterra.
1522 España: Tiene lugar la Primera batalla de San Marcial en la peña de Aldabe en Irún, Guipúzcoa. Los franco-navarros son derrotados en su intento de recuperar la independencia del Reino de Navarra.
1521 Las tropas castellanas derrotan a las fuerzas navarras en la batalla de Noáin.
1521 México: Los españoles arrasan la ciudad de Tlatelolco, aliada de Tenochtitlan, en una de las batallas decisivas de la Conquista de México
1520 México: La Noche Triste, los aztecas gobernados por Cuitláhuac expulsan de Tenochtitlan a las tropas españolas.
1483 España: el ejército cristiano rinde la fortaleza de Tájara (Granada), en cuya contienda estuvo a punto de perecer Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba “el Gran Capitán”.
0713 España: Tras un año de asedio, la plaza de Mérida es ocupada por los musulmanes dirigidos por Musa ibn Nusair.
Nacimientos Notables en Junio 30 …
1984 Fantasia Barrino, cantante estadounidense.
1982 Raúl García, lider & fundador del Movimiento Fundamentalista Radical Hebreo
1981 Vahina Giocante, actriz francesa.
1979 Matisyahu, cantante de reggae judío-estadounidense
1975 Ralf Schumacher, piloto de F1 alemán.
1971 Anette Michel, actriz mexicana.
1971 Monica Potter, actriz estadounidense.
1970 Leonardo Sbaraglia, actor argentino.
1966 Marton Csokas, actor neozelandés.
1966 Mike Tyson, boxeador estadounidense.
1964 Marco Del Freo, cantautor italiano
1963 Yngwie J. Malmsteen, guitarrista sueco (Steeler, Alcatrazz).
1959 Vincent D’Onofrio, actor estadounidense.
1947 Jorge Marrale, actor argentino.
1940 Víctor Erice, director de cine español.
1938 Pedro Olea, director de cine español.
1924 Eduardo Haro Tecglen, periodista español.
1917 Lena Horne, cantante estadounidense.
1917 Susan Hayward, actriz estadounidense.
1912 Leopoldo Zea, filosófo mexicano.
1911 Milosz Czeslaw, poeta estadounidense de origen polaco, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1980.
1909 Juan Bosch, presidente la República Dominicana.
1908 Winston Graham, escritor inglés.
1907 Anthony Mann, director de cine estadounidense.
1906 Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah, rey de Nepal.
1899 Frantisek Tomasek, cardenal católico checo.
1893 Walter Ulbricht, poltíco comunista alemán.
1879 Zsigmond Moricz, novelista húngaro.
1863 Henry Ford, fabricante de automóviles estadounidense.
1834 María del Carmen González Ramos “Madre Carmen del Niño Jesús”, religiosa española.
1730 Teodoro de Croix, aristócrata y militar flamenco.
1470 Carlos VIII, rey de Francia (1483-1498).
Fallecimientos Notables en Junio 30 …
2009 Harve Presnell, actor estadounidense (n. 1933).
2009 Pina Bausch, bailarina y coreógrafa alemana (n. 1940).
2008 Ángel Tavira Maldonado, compositor, músico y violinista mexicano (n. 1924).
2003 María Gabriela Epumer, música, cantante y actríz argentina.
1987 Federico Mompou, compositor español.
1971 Georgi Dobrovolski, cosmonauta soviético.
1966 Giuseppe Farina, piloto italiano de Formula 1
1961 Lee de Forest, inventor estadounidense.
1959 Agustín de Foxá, escritor, periodista y diplomático español.
1959 José Vasconcelos, historiador y político mexicano.
1950 Guilhermina Suggia, violonchelista portuguesa.
1934 Kurt von Schleicher, canciller alemán.
1919 John William Strutt, físico británico, premio Nobel de Física de 1904.
1857 Alcide d’Orbigny, naturalista frances.
1809 Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos, poeta español.
1785 James Oglethorpe, general ingles, fundador del estado de Georgia.


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1936 Gone with the Wind published
  • American Revolution

  • 1775 Congress impugns Parliament and adopts Articles of War
  • Automotive

  • 1953 First Corvette built
  • Civil War

  • 1862 Fighting continues in the Seven Days’ Battles
  • Cold War

  • 1950 Truman orders U.S. forces to Korea
  • Crime

  • 1981 A first-time offender ends up on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted List
  • Disaster

  • 1900 Fire breaks out at New Jersey pier
  • 2013 19 firefighters die in Arizona blaze
  • General Interest

  • 1520 Spanish retreat from Aztec capital
  • 1859 Daredevil crosses Niagara Falls on tightrope
  • 1934 Night of the Long Knives
  • 1971 Soviet cosmonauts perish in reentry disaster
  • Hollywood

  • 1989 Do the Right Thing released
  • Literary

  • 2003 Make Way for Ducklings author Robert McCloskey dies
  • Music

  • 1975 Cher marries Greg Allman
  • Old West

  • 1876 Soldiers are evacuated from the Little Big Horn by steamboat
  • Presidential

  • 1812 Madison makes urgent call to commission more officers to fight the British
  • Sports

  • 1962 Sandy Koufax pitches first no-hitter
  • Vietnam War

  • 1967 Thieu becomes president
  • 1970 Cooper-Church Amendment passes in Senate
  • World War I

  • 1914 European powers maintain focus despite killings in Sarajevo
  • World War II

  • 1943 Operation Cartwheel is launched



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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