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Junio 28 en la Historia

An assassination in Europe sparks World War I; Death sentence for mercenaries; Nixon announces draftees will not go to Vietnam; Elian Gonzalez and his father leave for Cuba; Workers assemble first Corvette; Boxer Mike Tyson disqualified for biting Evander Holyfield’s ear; Richard Rodgers and Mel Brooks born.

Hoy en la Historia,

Junio 28

en la Historia,

Today in History,


BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


Death sentence for mercenaries

Three Britons and an American have been sentenced to death by firing squad for their mercenary roles during the Angolan civil war.

One of the accused men, Costas Georgiou

The men’s lawyers have started appeals

A further nine men were sentenced to prison terms ranging from 16 to 30 years at the People’s Revolutionary Tribunal in Luanda.

Ernesto Teixeira da Silva, one of five judges presiding over the case, said: “Africa feels mercenaries are a danger to the people, the children and to the security of the state. They spread fear, shame and hatred in Angola.”

Costas Georgiou and Andrew McKenzie, who both served in the British army, were given the death sentence for participating in the killing of two Angolan citizens and fellow mercenaries.

American Daniel Gearhart was sentenced to death for advertising himself as a mercenary in an American newspaper.

I don’t feel sorry for them
Recruiter John Banks

John Derek Barker’s role as a leader of mercenaries in Northern Angola led the judges to send him to face the firing squad.

The sentences have now been referred to the Angolan President Agostinho Neto. He must approve the sentences before any actions can be carried out.

British Prime Minister James Callaghan has reportedly asked the Angolan President to show clemency towards the men sentenced to death.

Lawyers acting on behalf of the defendants are appealing against the decision saying: “In our view there is no crime of mercenary nor was there disclosed such crime in Angolan law.”

In Britain the man who recruited the British mercenaries, John Banks, said: “I don’t feel sorry for them. They are soldiers, they knew what they were doing. I would do it again.”

The 13 men were hired to fight in the civil war that broke out when Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975.

In Context

The four mercenaries sentenced to death by firing squad were shot on 10 July 1976.Costas Georgiou was the only mercenary to admit to being involved in “an organised group on the fringe of the law”.

The men had been hired to fight against the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the civil war that broke out after Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975.

In April 2002 the Angolan army and Unita signed a formal ceasefire in Luanda to end the 27-year conflict.


“Leader of Mercenaries”

Leonardo da Vinci’s Profilo di capitano antico, also known as il Condottiero, 1480. Condottiero meant “leader of mercenaries” in Italy during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or party to the conflict and is “motivated to take part in the hostilities by desire for private gain”. Mercenaries fight for money or other recompense rather than for political interests. In the last century, and as reflected in the Geneva Convention, mercenaries have increasingly come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries. However, whether or not a person is a mercenary may be a matter of degree, as financial and political interests may overlap.

Garibaldi asked by Lincoln to run army

A frayed postcard in a Turin archive has revealed one of the most audacious gambles of the American civil war. Abraham Lincoln offered the command of the northern forces to Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy and terror of the Pope.

ITALY – CIRCA 2002: Portrait of Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), by Gerolamo Induno (1827-1890). Italian Unification (Risorgimento), Italy, 19th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

The US president, his forces hammered by the Confederate army, turned in desperation to Garibaldi, spawning one of the great what ifs of history.

Rumours of Lincoln’s offer have circulated for a century and been denied by American scholars, but the document proved it was no myth, said Arrigo Petacco, a historian.

He stumbled across the faded blue postcard, from Garibaldi to King Victor Emmanuel II telling the king of the offer, last week while rummaging in 90 boxes of material donated by Italy’s exiled royal family.

Garibaldi caught the world’s imagination in 1860 after invading Sicily with 1,000 lightly armed redshirts. They defeated 12,000 Neapolitan troops, took the island and, determined to unify the Italian peninsula, invaded the mainland. They occupied Naples and unleashed a wave of support.

According to Mr Petacco, the rebel, who in the 1850s had led an army in Uruguay and travelled through the US, was also a mason. The international masonic lodge successfully lobbied for him to be granted American citizenship.

Garibaldi was ready to accept Lincoln’s 1862 offer but on one condition, said Mr Petacco: that the war’s objective be declared as the abolition of slavery. But at that stage Lincoln was unwilling to make such a statement lest he worsen an agricultural crisis.

“Later they offered Garibaldi the command of one unit, rather than the whole army, but at that point it was too late and he had gone on to do other things,” Mr Petacco said. “In Italy we always knew, but there was always a lot of scepticism in America. Now we know for sure.” – (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2000/feb/08/rorycarroll)



Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel


Nixon announces draftees will not go to Vietnam

Resultado de imagen de vietnam war
President Nixon announces that no more draftees will be sent to Vietnam unless they volunteer for such duty. He also announced that a force of 10,000 troops would be withdrawn by September 1, which would leave a total of 39,000 in Vietnam.


This Day in History

History Channel


Assassination in Europe sparks World War I

Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated

Imagen relacionada

In an event that is widely acknowledged to have sparked the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew of Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is shot to death along with his wife by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia, on this day in 1914.

The great Prussian statesman Otto von Bismarck, the man most responsible for the unification of Germany in 1871, was quoted as saying at the end of his life that “One day the great European War will come out of some damned foolish thing in the Balkans.” It went as he predicted.

Resultado de imagen de archduke franz ferdinand assassinated

Princip taken into custody after shooting Archduke Franz Ferdinand his wife Sophie

The archduke traveled to Sarajevo in June 1914 to inspect the imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, former Ottoman territories in the turbulent Balkan region that were annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908 to the indignation of Serbian nationalists, who believed they should become part of the newly independent and ambitious Serbian nation. The date scheduled for his visit, June 28, coincided with the anniversary of the First Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which medieval Serbia was defeated by the Turks. Despite the fact that Serbia did not truly lose its independence until the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, June 28 was a day of great significance to Serbian nationalists, and one on which they could be expected to take exception to a demonstration of Austrian imperial strength in Bosnia.

June 28 was also Franz Ferdinand’s wedding anniversary. His beloved wife, Sophie, a former lady-in-waiting, was denied royal status in Austria due to her birth as a poor Czech aristocrat, as were the couple’s children. In Bosnia, however, due to its limbo status as an annexed territory, Sophie could appear beside him at official proceedings. On June 28, 1914, then, Franz Ferdinand and Sophie were touring Sarajevo in an open car, with surprisingly little security, when Serbian nationalist Nedjelko Cabrinovic threw a bomb at their car; it rolled off the back of the vehicle and wounded an officer and some bystanders. Later that day, on the way to visit the injured officer, the archduke’s procession took a wrong turn at the junction of Appel quay and Franzjosefstrasse, where one of Cabrinovic’s cohorts, 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip, happened to be loitering.

Seeing his opportunity, Princip fired into the car, shooting Franz Ferdinand and Sophie at point-blank range. Princip then turned the gun on himself, but was prevented from shooting it by a bystander who threw himself upon the young assassin. A mob of angry onlookers attacked Princip, who fought back and was subsequently wrestled away by the police. Meanwhile, Franz Ferdinand and Sophie lay fatally wounded in their limousine as it rushed to seek help; they both died within the hour.

The assassination of Franz-Ferdinand and Sophie set off a rapid chain of events: Austria-Hungary, like many in countries around the world, blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the question of Slav nationalism once and for all. As Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention–which would likely involve Russia’s ally, France, and possibly Britain as well. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe’s great powers collapsed. Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and World War I had begun.



Workers assemble first Corvette in Flint, Michigan

On this day in 1953, workers at a Chevrolet plant in Flint, Michigan, assemble the first Corvette, a two-seater sports car that would become an American icon. The first completed production car rolled off the assembly line two days later, one of just 300 Corvettes made that year.

The idea for the Corvette originated with General Motors’ pioneering designer Harley J. Earl, who in 1951 began developing plans for a low-cost American sports car that could compete with Europe’s MGs, Jaguars and Ferraris. The project was eventually code-named “Opel.” In January 1953, GM debuted the Corvette concept car at its Motorama auto show at the Waldorf-Astoria first-chevrolet-corvette_2Hotel in New York City. It featured a fiberglass body and a six-cylinder engine and according to GM, was named for the “trim, fleet naval vessel that performed heroic escort and patrol duties during World War II.” The Corvette was a big hit with the public at Motorama and GM soon put the roadster into production.

On June 30, 1953, the first Corvette came off the production line in Flint. It was hand-assembled and featured a Polo White exterior and red interior, two-speed Powerglide automatic transmission, a wraparound windshield, whitewall tires and detachable plastic curtains instead of side windows. The earliest Corvettes were designed to be opened from the inside and lacked exterior door handles. Other components included a clock, cigarette lighter and red warning light that activated when the parking brake was applied–a new feature at the time. The car carried an initial price tag of $3,490 and could go from zero to 60 miles per hour in 11 or 12 seconds, then considered a fairly average speed.

In 1954, the Corvette went into mass production at a Chevy plant in St. Louis, Missouri. Sales were lackluster in the beginning and GM considered discontinuing the line. However, rival company Ford had introduced the two-seater Thunderbird around the same time and GM did not want to be seen bowing to the competition. Another critical development in the Corvette’s survival came in 1955, when it was equipped with the more powerful V-8 engine. Its performance and appeal steadily improved after that and it went on to earn the nickname “America’s sports car” and become ingrained in pop culture through multiple references in movies, television and music.

first-chevrolet-corvette_3On June 28, the Security Council met again and in the continued absence of the Soviet Union passed a U.S. resolution approving the use of force against North Korea. On June 30, Truman agreed to send U.S. ground forces to Korea, and on July 7 the Security Council recommended that all U.N. forces sent to Korea be put under U.S. command. The next day, General Douglas MacArthur was named commander of all U.N. forces in Korea.

In the opening months of the war, the U.S.-led U.N. forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but Chinese communist troops entered the fray in October, throwing the Allies into a hasty retreat. In April 1951, Truman relieved MacArthur of his command after he publicly threatened to bomb China in defiance of Truman’s stated war policy. Truman feared that an escalation of fighting with China would draw the Soviet Union into the Korean War.

first-chevrolet-corvette_3By May 1951, the communists were pushed back to the 38th parallel, and the battle line remained in that vicinity for the remainder of the war. On July 27, 1953, after two years of negotiation, an armistice was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today. Approximately 150,000 troops from South Korea, the United States, and participating U.N. nations were killed in the Korean War, and as many as one million South Korean civilians perished. An estimated 800,000 communist soldiers were killed, and more than 200,000 North Korean civilians died.

The original figure of American troops lost–54,246 killed–became controversial when the Pentagon acknowledged in 2000 that all U.S. troops killed around the world during the period of the Korean War were incorporated into that number. For example, any American soldier killed in a car accident anywhere in the world from June 1950 to July 1953 was considered a casualty of the Korean War. If these deaths are subtracted from the 54,000 total, leaving just the Americans who died (from whatever cause) in the Korean theater of operations, the total U.S. dead in the Korean War numbers 36,516.



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Junio 28 en la Historia del Mundo …
2009 Elecciones legislativas en Argentina.
2009 Golpe de Estado en Honduras tras el arresto del presidente Manuel Zelaya por militares y su posterior destierro a Costa Rica. La captura se produjo en la jornada en que la que Zelaya había convocado una consulta popular para decidir una eventual reforma constitucional.
2009 Se celebran elecciones primarias e internas en Uruguay.
2008 Comienza el Año de San Pablo, convocado en 2007 por el papa Benedicto XVI.
2007 Colombia: 11 de los 12 Diputados que fueron secuestrados el 11 de abril de 2002 fueron asesinados por el Grupo terrorista FARC.
2007 Melanie B, Emma, Victoria, Geri y Melanie C anuncian en Londres su regreso como Spice Girls para ofrecer una gira mundial recordando sus éxitos.
2004 Paul Bremer abandona Iraq después de traspasar la soberanía.
2003 Aterriza en Barcelona el Harley Davidson Open Road Tour, celebrando los 100 años de la marca. Más de 15.000 motocicletas se dan cita en Montjuic haciendo posible una de las mayores fiestas moteras de la historia en España.
1995 Masacre de Aguas Blancas: la policía del estado mexicano de Guerrero asesina a 17 campesinos que se dirigían a un mitin político en Atoyac de Álvarez.
1969 Se producen en Nueva York los disturbios de Stonewall, una serie de altercados en pro de los derechos de los homosexuales ocurridos alrededor del bar Stonewall Inn.
1966 Un golpe de estado derroca al presidente argentino Arturo Umberto Illia.
1919 Se firma el Tratado de Versalles.
1914 Asesinan en Sarajevo al archiduque Francisco Fernando y a su esposa, Sofía Chotek, en el llamado Atentado de Sarajevo.
1807 Virreinato del Río de la Plata: ingleses invaden y conquistan Buenos Aires.
1519 Carlos V es elegido emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico
1412 Compromiso de Caspe: El infante castellano Fernando el de Antequera, es nombrado Fernando I de Aragón.
1389 La batalla de Kosovo.
1243 Sinibaldo Fieschi es nombrado papa y asume con el nombre de Inocencio IV.
Nacimientos Notables en Junio 28 …
1986 Alba Villares, célebre maestra de infantil
1983 Dmitriy Yakovenko, ajedrecista ruso.
1980 Flávio Saretta, tenista brasileño.
1973 Alberto Berasategui, tenista español.
1973 Lourdes Maldonado, presentadora de Antena 3 Noticias
1972 Óscar Esquivias, escritor español.
1971 Fabien Barthez, futbolista francés.
1968 Chayanne, cantante y actor puertorriqueño.
1967 Lars Riedel, atleta alemán.
1966 John Cusack, actor estadounidense.
1965 Teté Delgado, artista y actriz española.
1960 John Elway, jugador de fútbol americano.
1957 Georgi Purvanov, presidente de Bulgaria.
1952 Pietro Mennea, atleta italiano.
1948 Kathy Bates, actriz estadounidense.
1943 Donald Johanson, paleoantropólogo estadounidense.
1943 Klaus von Klitzing, físico alemán, premio Nobel de Física en 1985.
1940 Muhammad Yunus, banquero y economista bengalí.
1938 Luis Aragonés, jugador y entrenador de fùtbol español.
1938 Moy Yat, artista marcial chino.
1932 Pat Morita, actor estadounidense.
1930 Itamar Franco, político brasileño de origen italiano.
1928 Hans Blix, diplomático y político sueco.
1927 F. Sherwood Rowland, científico estadounidense.
1926 Mel Brooks, guionista, actor y director de cine estadounidense.
1921 P. V. Narasimha Rao, político hindú.
1912 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, físico y filósofo alemán.
1912 Sergiu Celibidache, director de orquesta rumano.
1909 Eric Ambler, escritor británico.
1909 Francisco Grande Covián, bioquímico español.
1908 Juan Carlos Thorry Actor argentino.
1906 Maria Goeppert-Mayer, física de origen alemán, premio Nobel de Física en 1963.
1891 Esther Forbes, escritora estadounidense.
1888 Eloy Vaquero Cantillo, político español.
1875 Henri Léon Lebesgue, matemático francés.
1873 Alexis Carrel, biólogo, médico y escritor francés, premio Nobel de Medicina en 1912.
1870 José María Gabriel y Galán, poeta español.
1867 Luigi Pirandello, escritor italiano, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1934.
1859 José Sánchez Guerra, político, abogado y periodista español.
1832 Juan León Mera Martínez, escritor, pintor y político ecuatoriano.
1831 Joseph Joachim, violinista, compositor y director de orquesta austro-húngaro.
1824 Paul Broca, cirujano y antropólogo francés.
1712 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, escritor, compositor y filósofo suizo.
1664 Nicolas Bernier, músico y compositor francés.
1577 Peter Paul Rubens, pintor holandés.
1491 Enrique VIII, rey de Inglaterra (1509-1547).
1476 Papa Pablo IV (1555-1559).
Fallecimientos Notables en Junio 28 …
2009 Billy Mays, televendedor estadounidense (n. 1958).
2008 Pep Bassas Vilasis, piloto de rallis español (n. 1961).
2008 Ruslana Korshunova, modelo kazaja (n. 1987).
2005 Fabián Bielinsky, cineasta argentino.
2001 Jack Lemmon, actor estadounidense.
2001 Jim Ellis, uno de los creadores de Usenet.
2001 Joan Sims, actriz inglesa.
2001 Mortimer Jerome Adler, filósofo estadounidense.
1997 Mrs. Miller, cantante estadounidense.
1995 Francisco Grande Covián, bioquímico español.
1993 Olga Costa, pintora mexicana.
1992 Mijaíl Tal, ajedrecista letón.
1989 Joris Ivens, cineasta holandés.
1981 Terry Fox, atleta y activista político canadiense.
1980 José Iturbi, Pianista, director de orquesta y compositor español.
1979 Blas de Otero, poeta español.
1975 Rod Serling, guionista estadounidense.
1974 Vannevar Bush, ingeniero estadounidense.
1960 Jaume Vicens Vives, historiador español.
1930 Juan Antonio Benlliure, escultor español.
1914 Francisco Fernando de Austria, archiduque austrohúngaro.
1914 Sofía Chotek, Duquesa de Hohenberg.
1889 Maria Mitchell, astrónoma estadounidense.
1836 James Madison, 4º presidente de los EE.UU. (1809-1817)
1708 Melchor de Liñán, virrey de Perú.
1676 Juan Cererols, organista español.
1598 Abraham Ortelius, geógrafo y cartógrafo holandés.
0767 Papa Pablo I, (757-767).


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1953 Workers assemble first Corvette in Flint, Michigan
  • American Revolution

  • 1836 Former President James Madison dies
  • Automotive

  • 2006 DaimlerChrysler announces Smart’s arrival in United States
  • Civil War

  • 1862 Confederates capture commercial ship
  • Cold War

  • 1948 Yugoslavia expelled from COMINFORM
  • Crime

  • 1975 A teenage girl’s boyfriend murders her parents
  • 1993 A serial rapist strikes in Allentown
  • Disaster

  • 1992 Two big quakes rock California
  • General Interest

  • 1519 Charles elected Holy Roman emperor
  • 1914 Archduke Ferdinand assassinated
  • 1919 Keynes predicts economic chaos
  • 1969 The Stonewall Riot
  • Hollywood

  • 1916 Lasky Company merges with Famous Players, later to become Paramount
  • Literary

  • 1888 Robert Louis Stevenson sets sail for the South Seas
  • Music

  • 1928 Louis Armstrong records “West End Blues”
  • Old West

  • 1857 Western writer Emerson Hough is born
  • Presidential

  • 1919 Harry S. Truman marries Bess Wallace
  • Sports

  • 1997 Mike Tyson bites ear
  • Vietnam War

  • 1965 U.S. forces launch first offensive
  • 1972 Nixon announces draftees will not go to Vietnam
  • World War I

  • 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated
  • World War II

  • 1940 Britain recognizes General Charles de Gaulle as the leader of the Free French



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)