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Junio 27 en la Historia

Smoking ’causes lung cancer’; Truman orders U.S. forces to Korea; John Dean testifies about the Nixon White House’s ‘enemies list’; Stonewall riots spark the modern gay rights movement; Actor Jack Lemmon dies.

Hoy en la Historia,

Junio 27

en la Historia,

Today in History,


BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


Smoking ’causes lung cancer’

The link between smoking and lung cancer is one of ‘direct cause and effect’, a special report by the Medical Research Council has found.

Smoker, 1957

This smoker said the findings “didn’t frighten him at all”

The report, published today, studied the dramatic increase in deaths from lung cancer over the past 25 years and concluded the main cause was smoking.

But tobacco firms have rejected the findings saying they are merely a ‘matter of opinion’.

The government has indicated that an educational campaign to raise awareness on the dangers of smoking will be launched via local health authorities.

Shares unaffected

The report states that in 1945 the mortality rate from lung cancer was 188 deaths in every million. Ten years later the figure had almost doubled to 388 in every million.

The report, which looked at evidence from 21 investigations in six countries, found cigarette smoking to be the predominant cause for this rise.

Mr Vaughan-Morgan, Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health said: “The government feels that it is right to ensure that this latest authoritative opinion is brought effectively to public notice, so that everyone may know the risks involved.”

But he made it clear that people, armed with the facts, would be able to make up their own minds and smoking would not be banned.

The prohibition of smoking in theatres, cinemas and public transport is not on the agenda, he added.

It is estimated that between £600m and £620m in revenue is generated by the sale of cigarettes.

The Conservatives have questioned what alternative taxes the government would introduce to cover that figure should cigarette smoking now be eliminated.

Members of the general public, asked by the BBC for their reaction to the findings, appeared unphased.

One smoker said that, although he was not considering giving up smoking himself, he thought the younger generation would be well advised not to start.

Another man said he was “not frightened at all” by the findings and may even consider increasing the number of cigarettes he smokes each day.

These views were reflected on the stock market where shares in leading tobacco companies remained largely unaffected by the news.

In Context
Since the 1957 report suggested a link between smoking and lung cancer, the connection has been firmly established.Lung cancer now kills 20,000 people every year and health experts predict that life-time smokers have a 50% chance of dying of a smoking-related illness in middle-age.

It is also been established that tobacco smoking causes 25 different diseases including heart disease and strokes.

By 2020, the World Health Organisation expects the worldwide death toll to reach 10 million, causing 17.7% of all deaths in developed countries.

There are believed to be 1.1 billion smokers in the world, 800 million of them in developing countries.


Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel

Nixon’s Enemies List

John Dean's cover memo, dated 16 August 1971.

John Dean’s cover memo, dated 16 August 1971.


President Richard Nixon’s Official Presidential Photograph, taken in 1971


richard-nixon_1 nixon-pin-peace-prosperityrichard-nixon_2


Nixon’s Enemies List” is the informal name of what started as a list of President of the United States Richard Nixon’s major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), and sent in memorandum form to John Dean on September 9, 1971. The list was part of a campaign officially known as “Opponents List” and “Political Enemies Project.” The list became public knowledge when Dean mentioned during hearings with the Senate Watergate Committee that a list existed containing those whom the president did not like. Journalist Daniel Schorr, who happened to be on the list, managed to obtain a copy of it later that day.

The official purpose, as described by the White House Counsel’s Office, was to “screw” Nixon’s political enemies, by means of tax audits from the Internal Revenue Service, and by manipulating “grant availability, federal contracts, litigation, prosecution, etc.” In a memorandum from John Dean to Lawrence Higby (August 16, 1971), Dean explained the purpose of the list:

“This memorandum addresses the matter of how we can maximize the fact of our incumbency in dealing with persons known to be active in their opposition to our Administration; stated a bit more bluntly—how we can use the available federal machinery to screw our political enemies.”

The IRS commissioner, Donald C. Alexander, refused to launch audits of the people on the list.
According to Dean, Colson later compiled hundreds of names on a “master list” which changed constantly. On December 20, 1973, the Congressional Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation concluded that people on the “Enemies” list had not been subjected to an unusual number of tax audits. The report revealed a second list of about 576 (with some duplicates) supporters and staffers of George McGovern’s 1972 presidential campaign given to Internal Revenue Commissioner Johnnie Walters by John Dean on September 11, 1972. The Washington Post printed the entire list the next day, but The New York Times reported just a few paragraphs on page 21.



This Day in History

History Channel


Truman orders U.S. forces to Korea

Truman orders U.S. forces to Korea

On June 27, 1950, President Harry S. Truman announces that he is ordering U.S. air and naval forces to South Korea to aid the democratic nation in repulsing an invasion by communist North Korea. The United States was undertaking the major military operation, he explained, to enforce a United Nations resolution calling for an end to hostilities, and to stem the spread of communism in Asia. In addition to ordering U.S. forces to Korea, Truman also deployed the U.S. 7th Fleet to Formosa (Taiwan) to guard against invasion by communist China and ordered an acceleration of military aid to French forces fighting communist guerrillas in Vietnam.

At the Yalta Conference towards the end of World War II, the United States, the USSR, and Great Britain agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones. The country was split along the 38th parallel, with Soviet forces occupying the northern zone and Americans stationed in the south. In 1947, the United States and Great Britain called for free elections throughout Korea, but the Soviets refused to comply. In May 1948 the Korean Democratic People’s Republic–a communist state–was proclaimed in North Korea. In August, the democratic Republic of Korea was established in South Korea. By 1949, both the United States and the USSR had withdrawn the majority of their troops from the Korean Peninsula.

At dawn on June 25, 1950 (June 24 in the United States and Europe), 90,000 communist troops of the North Korean People’s Army invaded South Korea across the 38th parallel, catching the Republic of Korea’s forces completely off guard and throwing them into a hasty southern retreat. On the afternoon of June 25, the U.N. Security Council met in an emergency session and approved a U.S. resolution calling for an “immediate cessation of hostilities” and the withdrawal of North Korean forces to the 38th parallel. At the time, the USSR was boycotting the Security Council over the U.N.’s refusal to admit the People’s Republic of China and so missed its chance to veto this and other crucial U.N. resolutions.

On June 27, President Truman announced to the nation and the world that America would intervene in the Korean conflict in order to prevent the conquest of an independent nation by communism. Truman was suggesting that the USSR was behind the North Korean invasion, and in fact the Soviets had given tacit approval to the invasion, which was carried out with Soviet-made tanks and weapons. Despite the fear that U.S. intervention in Korea might lead to open warfare between the United States and Russia after years of “cold war,” Truman’s decision was met with overwhelming approval from Congress and the U.S. public. Truman did not ask for a declaration of war, but Congress voted to extend the draft and authorized Truman to call up reservists.

On June 28, the Security Council met again and in the continued absence of the Soviet Union passed a U.S. resolution approving the use of force against North Korea. On June 30, Truman agreed to send U.S. ground forces to Korea, and on July 7 the Security Council recommended that all U.N. forces sent to Korea be put under U.S. command. The next day, General Douglas MacArthur was named commander of all U.N. forces in Korea.

In the opening months of the war, the U.S.-led U.N. forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but Chinese communist troops entered the fray in October, throwing the Allies into a hasty retreat. In April 1951, Truman relieved MacArthur of his command after he publicly threatened to bomb China in defiance of Truman’s stated war policy. Truman feared that an escalation of fighting with China would draw the Soviet Union into the Korean War.

By May 1951, the communists were pushed back to the 38th parallel, and the battle line remained in that vicinity for the remainder of the war. On July 27, 1953, after two years of negotiation, an armistice was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today. Approximately 150,000 troops from South Korea, the United States, and participating U.N. nations were killed in the Korean War, and as many as one million South Korean civilians perished. An estimated 800,000 communist soldiers were killed, and more than 200,000 North Korean civilians died.

The original figure of American troops lost–54,246 killed–became controversial when the Pentagon acknowledged in 2000 that all U.S. troops killed around the world during the period of the Korean War were incorporated into that number. For example, any American soldier killed in a car accident anywhere in the world from June 1950 to July 1953 was considered a casualty of the Korean War. If these deaths are subtracted from the 54,000 total, leaving just the Americans who died (from whatever cause) in the Korean theater of operations, the total U.S. dead in the Korean War numbers 36,516.



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Junio 27 se celebra…
  • Dia del Periodista en Venezuela
  • Día Internaciónal de la sordoceguera, declarado como homenaje al natalicio de Helen Keller.
Junio 27 en la Historia del Mundo …
2007 Tony Blair dimite como Primer Ministro de Inglaterra. Un gran día de despedidas.
2006 Ronaldo se convierte en el mayor goleador de la historia de las Copas Mundiales de Fútbol, en Alemania, ante Ghana, alcanzando los 15 goles.
2002 El congreso de los diputados de España aprueba la ley de servicios de la sociedad de la información y del comercio electrónico.
2001 Rusia lanza un cohete balístico intercontinental de la clase RS-18 para probar su capacidad operativa.
1995 El empresario aragonés Publio Cordón es secuestrado en Zaragoza por los GRAPO.
1986 La Corte Internacional de Justicia falló a favor de Nicaragua en el caso que ésta presentó contra los Estados Unidos.
1979 Muhammad Ali anuncia su retiro del boxeo.
1977 Yibuti se independiza de Francia.
1973 Golpe de estado en Uruguay: el presidente de la república, Juan María Bordaberry disuelve el parlamento con el apoyo de las fuerzas armadas.
1969 Disturbios de Stonewall: una redada en un bar gay de Nueva York suscita marchas y enfrentamientos entre la comunidad gay y la policía.
1957 La empresa española Seat pone a la venta el coche 600.
1893 Crash de la Bolsa de Nueva York.
1806 Primera Invasión inglesa a Buenos Aires.
1759 El general James Wolfe inicia el asedio de Quebec.
1709 Pedro el Grande derrota a Carlos XII de Suecia en la Batalla de Poltava.
1706 Ante el sesgo que toma la guerra de sucesión en España se anuncia el traslado de la Corte de Madrid a Burgos.
1542 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reclama la soberanía española de California.
1410 España: las tropas nazaritas incendian las torres de combate cristianas que mantenían el asedio a Antequera (Málaga).
Nacimientos Notables en Junio 27 …
1986 Drake Bell, cantante, guitarrista y actor estadounidense.
1977 Raúl González, futbolista español.
1975 Asier Etxeandía, actor y cantante español.
1975 Tobey Maguire, actor estadounidense
1971 Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah, rey de Nepal.
1966 J. J. Abrams, cineasta estadounidense.
1966 Julián Weich , Conductor de television Argentino.
1963 Ollanta Humala, comandante EP peruano.
1955 Isabelle Adjani, actriz y cantante francesa.
1941 Krzysztof Kieslowski, director de cine polaco.
1937 Jesús Hermida, periodista y presentador de TV español.
1930 Anna Moffo, soprano estadounidense.
1930 Ross Perot, político y empresario estadounidense.
1922 Silvia Piñeiro, actriz chilena.
1885 Guilhermina Suggia, violonchelista portuguesa.
1880 Helen Keller, escritora, activista, y oradora estadounidense.
1872 Paul Laurence Dunbar, poeta afroamericano estadounidense.
1869 Hans Spemann, embriólogo alemán, premio Nobel de Medicina en 1935.
1859 Emma Goldman, anarquista y feminista estadounidense de origen lituano.
1852 Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, botánico, zoólogo y geólogo argentino.
1850 Lafcadio Hearn, escritor grecoirlandés.
1846 Charles Stewart Parnell, líder político irlandés
1806 Augustus De Morgan, matemático y lógico inglés.
1742 José de Iturrigaray, militar español, virrey de Nueva España (1803-1808).
1550 Carlos IX de Francia (m. 1574).
1462 Luis XII de Francia (m. 1515).
1350 Manuel II, emperador de los romanos (m. 1425).
1040 Ladislao I de Hungría (m. 1095).
Fallecimientos Notables en Junio 27 …
2009 Victoriano Crémer, poeta, novelista y centenario español (n. 1906).
2008 Carlos Vinicio Gómez Ruiz, político guatemalteco (n. 1960).
2008 Elke Wehr, traductora alemana (n. 1946).
2007 Emilio Ochoa, político cubano.
2002 John Entwistle, bajista del grupo de rock The Who.
2001 Jack Lemmon, actor y director estadounidense.
2001 Tove Jansson, escritora, pintora e ilustradora finlandesa.
1999 Georgios Papadopoulos, político griego.
1996 Albert R. Broccoli, productor de cine estadounidense.
1989 Felipe Correa Lavanchy , Jóven Estudiante Chileno
1988 Aparicio Méndez, político y dictador de Uruguay.
1957 Hermann Buhl, montañero austriaco.
1946 Juan Antonio Ríos, presidente de Chile.
1874 Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha, militar y político español.
1844 Joseph Smith, fundador del mormonismo.
1831 Sophie Germain, matemática francesa.
1574 Giorgio Vasari, pintor, arquitecto e historiador italiano.
1558 Caupolicán, caudillo mapuche chileno.
1458 Alfonso V, rey de Aragón.
1194 Sancho VI, el Sabio, rey de Navarra.
1149 Raimundo de Poitiers, príncipe de Antioquía.


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1950 Truman orders U.S. forces to Korea
  • American Revolution

  • 1775 Schuyler dispatched to Ticonderoga and Crown Point
  • Automotive

  • 1985 Route 66 decertified
  • Civil War

  • 1864 Confederate and Union forces clash at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
  • Cold War

  • 1950 U.N. approves armed force to repel North Korea
  • Crime

  • 1921 Four-time thief escapes Baumes law
  • Disaster

  • 1976 Ebola breaks out in Sudan
  • General Interest

  • 1829 Smithson’s curious bequest
  • 1844 Mormon leader killed by mob
  • 1922 First Newbery Medal for children’s literature
  • Hollywood

  • 1939 “Frankly, My Dear…”
  • Literary

  • 1953 Alice McDermott’s birthday
  • Music

  • 1968 Elvis Presley tapes his famous TV “comeback special”
  • Old West

  • 1874 Buffalo hunters and Indians clash at Adobe Walls
  • Presidential

  • 1963 JFK visits Ireland
  • Sports

  • 1988 Tyson knocks out Spinks
  • Vietnam War

  • 1963 Kennedy appoints Lodge as ambassador
  • 1968 U.S. forces begin to evacuate Khe Sanh
  • World War I

  • 1914 Colonel House meets with British foreign secretary in London
  • World War II

  • 1940 Germans get Enigma
  • 1944 U.S. troops liberate Cherbourg, France



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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