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Junio 23 en la Historia

Haldeman encourages Nixon to ward off FBI; A key moment in the Watergate scandal; Pope meets banned union leader Walesa; Adolf Hitler visits Paris after France falls to Nazi Germany; The typewriter gets a patent; Polio vaccine pioneer Dr. Jonas Salk and TV producer Aaron Spelling die.

Hoy en la Historia,

Junio 23

en la Historia,

Today in History,


BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


Pope meets banned union leader Walesa

Pope John Paul II and Lech Walesa

The Pope met Lech Walesa in private for around 40 minutes


Pope John Paul II has held a private meeting with Lech Walesa, the founder and leader of Solidarity, Poland’s independent trade union movement.

Solidarity has been banned since December 1981 when martial law was declared following social tensions in Poland.

It is the second time Pope John Paul II – who was formerly Archbishop of Krakow – has returned to his native Poland since he became head of the Roman Catholic Church in 1978.

Mr Walesa met the Pope in the Tatra Mountains in the south of the country towards the end of his eight-day visit to Poland.

This right is not given to us by the state…It is a right given by the Creator
Pope John Paul II

Solidarity sources say the Pope told Mr Walesa that he should rely on the advice of the Catholic Church, rather than organising street demonstrations as part of the trade union movement’s campaign to bring about political reforms in Poland.

As Archbishop, Karol Wojtyla took an uncompromising stand against the Communist regime.

But the Pope has urged the country to try to resolve its differences through dialogue and not confrontation.

Officials close to Mr Walesa say the Pope also told the Solidarity leader that martial law could be lifted by the autumn.

This, they say, was indicated to the Pope by Prime Minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski during talks just hours before he met Mr Walesa.

Mr Walesa has said he was “moved and enthusiastic” about his meeting with the Pope, and is willing to take a “back seat” as a focus for opposition to the government in ending martial law.

The Pope has also addressed a congregation of two million worshippers in Katowice, Poland’s industrial heartland in the south, and told them that workers should be able to join free trade unions.

He said: “This right is not given to us by the state. It is a right given by the Creator.”

During his visit the Pope blessed the widows of workers killed when martial law was imposed.

The Polish Government has said it will cooperate closely with the Catholic Church in the future, and it is well known the Pope would like the church to be involved in any reconciliation process.

President Henryk Jablonski, who said goodbye to the Pope at Krakow airport, told reporters that “dialogue is possible and inevitable”.

Before returning to the Vatican in Rome, the Pope made a televised address to the Polish people from the airport.

He said: “The nation must develop by its own means and resources.”

In Context
Lech Walesa, who won the Nobel peace price in 1983, was a devout Catholic and his rise to prominence came about at the same time as Pope John Paul II began his term in office.The Pope served as an inspiration for many Catholics in Poland who wanted religious, political and economic freedoms.

Martial law was lifted a month after the Pope’s visit – which also led to a government amnesty for political prisoners.

During the next five years gradual steps were taken to create a civil society in Poland.

In 1988 a grave economic crisis, coupled with the era of “glasnost” and “perestroika” under reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, forced the Polish government to negotiate with Solidarity.

Elections were held in 1989 when Solidarity won a landslide victory and formed a coalition government.

The following year Lech Walesa was elected as Poland’s president, transforming the country into a market economy.

The Pope died at 2137 (1937 GMT) on Saturday 2 April 2005 after he failed to recover from a throat operation.


Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel



This Day in History

History Channel


Haldeman encourages Nixon to ward off FBI

On this day in 1973, President Richard Nixon’s advisor, H.R. Haldeman, tells the president to put pressure on the head of the FBI to “stay the hell out of this [Watergate burglary investigation] business.” In essence, Haldeman was telling Nixon to obstruct justice, which is one of the articles Congress threatened to impeach Nixon for in 1974.

In audio tapes of that day’s conversation in the Oval Office, Haldeman tells Nixon that the press and FBI investigators have come close to linking the men who burglarized the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972, housed in the Watergate building, to the White House. They specifically mention funds diverted to the burglars, many of whom were Cuban, by members of Nixon’s re-election committee.

Nixon tells Haldeman to tell the FBI that the funds in question were intended for the CIA and concocted a story about covert plans regarding communist Cuba. “Don t lie to them,” said Nixon, “to the extent to say there’s no involvement [on the part of the president] but just say this is sort of a comedy of errors, bizarre, without getting into it.”

The tapes of the hour-and-a-half conversation between Nixon and Haldeman eventually brought the down the Nixon administration and led to his resignation in August 1974. They were considered the “smoking gun” which proved Nixon’s role in obstructing justice during the Watergate investigation.




Teflon Don sentenced to life

John_GottiMafia boss John Gotti, who was nicknamed the “Teflon Don” after escaping unscathed from several trials during the 1980s, is sentenced to life in prison after being found guilty on 14 accounts of conspiracy to commit murder and racketeering. Moments after his sentence was read in a federal courthouse in Brooklyn, hundreds of Gotti’s supporters stormed the building and overturned and smashed cars before being forced back by police reinforcements.

Gotti, born and educated on the mean streets of New York City, became head of the powerful Gambino family after boss Paul Castellano was murdered outside a steakhouse in Manhattan in December 1985. The gang assassination, the first in three decades in New York, was organized by Gotti and his colleague Sammy “the Bull” Gravano. The Gambino family was known for its illegal narcotics operations, gambling activities, and car theft. During the next five years, Gotti rapidly expanded his criminal empire, and his family grew into the nation’s most powerful Mafia family. Despite wide publicity of his criminal activities, Gotti managed to avoid conviction several times, usually through witness intimidation. In 1990, however, he was indicted for conspiracy to commit murder in the death of Paul Castellano, and Gravano agreed to testify against him in a federal district court in exchange for a reduced prison sentence.

On April 2, 1992, John Gotti was found guilty on all counts and on June 23 was sentenced to multiple life terms without the possibility of parole.

While still imprisoned, Gotti died of throat cancer on June 10, 2002.



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Junio 23 se celebra…
  • Año nuevo Mapuche
  • Día de la Administración Pública de las Naciones Unidas
  • Día del Abogado
  • Día nacional de Luxemburgo
  • España – Montorio(Burgos) – Fiesta de San Juan
  • Santoral católico: Santa Edeltrudis, San Demetriano
Junio 23 en la Historia del Mundo …
2001 Perú: El sabado 23de junio a las 15.33 Hora local y 16.33 Hora en Chile, un terremoto de 6,9 grados en escala de Richter destruye las ciudades de Arequipa, Moquegua y Tacna. Deja daños de considerable magnitud en Arica e Iquique (Chile).
1964 Swazilandia: Primeras elecciones democráticas.
1961 Entra en vigor el Tratado Antártico
1947 Estados Unidos: la Ley de Taft-Hartley
1914 El General Pancho Villa derrota a las fuerzas federales de Victoriano Huerta en la ciudad de Zacatecas.
1894 Se funda el Comité Olímpico Internacional en París.
1869 El General Venancio Pulgar declara al estado Zulia como autónomo e independiente de Venezuela, sin embargo, es sofocado al poco tiempo.
1683 William Penn firmó el Tratado de la tierra con los indios americanos.
1185 España: Sancho III de Castilla y Fernando II de León firman el Tratado de Sahagún para el reparto de las zonas conquistadas en las tierras musulmanas de al-Andalus.
Nacimientos Notables en Junio 23 …
1988 Chellsie Memmel, gimnasta estadounidense.
1978 Memphis Bleek, rapero estadounidense.
1977 Miguel Ángel Angulo, futbolista español.
1976 Patrick Vieira, futbolista francés.
1975 KT Tunstall, cantautora escocesa.
1973 Marie N, cantante letona.
1972 Selma Blair, actriz estadounidense.
1972 Zinedine Zidane, futbolista francés.
1970 Yann Tiersen, músico y compositor francés.
1965 Paul Arthurs, guitarrista del grupo británico Oasis.
1964 Joss Whedon, escritor, director y productor ejecutivo estadounidense.
1963 Colin Montgomerie, golfista escocés.
1963 Steve Shelley, músico estadounidense (Sonic Youth).
1961 David Leavitt, escritor estadounidense.
1957 Frances McDormand, actriz estadounidense.
1955 Glenn Danzig, músico estadounidense (The Misfits).
1955 Jean Tigana, ex-futbolista francés.
1954 Carmen Pinós, arquitecta española.
1953 Russell Mulcahy, director de cine australiano.
1948 Clarence Thomas, jurista estadounidense.
1943 Albert Pintat Santolària, presidente de Andorra.
1943 James Levine, director de orquesta estadounidense.
1943 Vinton Cerf, programador estadounidense, pionero del Internet.
1941 Robert Hunter, músico estadounidense (Grateful Dead).
1940 Stuart Sutcliffe, bajista inglés, conocido como el quinto Beatle.
1940 Wilma Rudolph, atleta estadounidense.
1939 Álvaro Pombo, escritor español.
1939 José Ángel García de Cortázar, historiador español.
1937 Martti Ahtisaari, presidente de Finlandia (1994-2000).
1936 Carlos Fonseca, profesor, político y revolucionario nicaragüense.
1936 Costas Simitis, primer ministro de Grecia (1996-2004).
1930 John Huxtable Elliott, historiador británico.
1929 June Carter Cash, cantante estadounidense.
1929 Richard Bach, escritor estadounidense.
1927 Bob Fosse, actor, coreógrafo y director de cine estadounidense.
1922 Juan San Martín de Zárate, escritor español.
1912 Alan Mathison Turing, matemático y padre de la ingeniería informática y de la computación.
1910 Gordon B. Hinckley, profeta mormón.
1910 Jean Anouilh, dramaturgo francés.
1907 James Meade, economista inglés, Premio Nobel de Economía en 1977.
1894 Alfred Charles Kinsey, biólogo estadounidense.
1894 Eduardo VIII, monarca del Reino Unido y Duque de Windsor.
1875 Carl Milles, escultor sueco.
1869 Elías Tormo, crítico de arte y arqueólogo español.
1862 María de la Paz de Borbón, hija de la reina de España Isabel II.
1843 Paul von Groth, cristalógrafo alemán.
1837 Ernest Guiraud, compositor francés.
1805 Manuel Ascensio Segura y Cordero, escritor peruano.
1722 Juan Ramos de Lora, religioso español.
1668 Giambattista Vico, filósofo italiano.
1435 Francisco II de Bretaña, Duque de Bretaña.
Fallecimientos Notables en Junio 23 …
2009 Manuel Saval, actor mexicano (n. 1956).
2008 Ramón Tamayo, productor y empresario teatral español (n. 1921.
2008 Raymond Arthur Cheng, político y presidente guyanés (1970-1980) (n. 1918).
2006 Aaron Spelling, productor de películas y series de televisión estadounidense.
2005 Manolis Anagnostakis, poeta griego (n. 1925)
2002 Pedro ‘El Rockero’ Alcazar, boxeador panameño (n. 1975)
2000 Petr Dubovsky, futbolista eslovaco.
2000 Rodrigo Bueno, cantante argentino.
1999 Buster Merryfield, actor britanico (n. 1920)
1998 Maureen O’Sullivan, actriz irlandesa.
1995 Jonas Salk, inventor de la vacuna contra la poliomielitis.
1993 Rafael Anglada, actor y comediógrafo español.
1992 Eric Andolsek, jugador de futbol americano (n. 1966)
1991 Antonio Jacinto, escritor y político congoleño.
1980 Clyfford Still, pintor estadounidense.
1970 Roscoe Turner, aviador y piloto estadounidense.
1967 Walter Blumenfeld, psicólogo alemán radicado en el Perú.
1959 Boris Vian, escrito y musico frances (n. 1920)
1956 Reinhold Glière, compositor ruso de música (n. 1875)
1953 Albert Gleizes, pintor francés.
1926 Viktor Vasnetsov, pintor ruso (n. 1848)
1909 Matías Barrio y Mier, político español.
1839 Esther Stanhope, lady inglesa.
1832 James Hall, geólogo y biologo escocés (n. 1761)
1831 Mateo Pérez de Albéniz, compositor español.
1806 Mathurin Jacques Brisson, zoologo y filósofo frances (n. 1723)
1775 Carl Ludwing, aventurero y escritor alemán.
1770 Mark Akenside, poeta y psicologo ingles (n. 1721)
0840 Ludovico Pío, hijo de Carlomagno, rey de los Francos (814-840).


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1992 Teflon Don sentenced to life
  • American Revolution

  • 1776 Commodore Parker prepares for a naval strike on Charleston
  • Automotive

  • 1902 “Mercedes” registered as a brand name
  • Civil War

  • 1862 Lee confers with his generals before the Seven Days’ Battles
  • Cold War

  • 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Aleksei Kosygin
  • Crime

  • 1934 Even without the corpse, a murderer is uncovered
  • Disaster

  • 1944 Tornadoes hit West Virginia and Pennsylvania
  • General Interest

  • 1956 Nasser elected president
  • 1959 Klaus Fuchs released
  • 2013 Wallenda makes Grand Canyon crossing on high wire
  • Hollywood

  • 1989 Batman released
  • Literary

  • 1929 Michael Shaara, author of The Killer Angels, is born
  • Music

  • 1987 Tiffany visits the mall on her way to stardom
  • Old West

  • 1878 Frontiersman Martin Sweeny is murdered
  • Presidential

  • 1927 Newspaper reveals Coolidge will be adopted into Sioux tribe
  • 1972 Nixon signs Higher Education Act
  • 1973 Haldeman encourages Nixon to ward off FBI
  • Sports

  • 1972 Title IX enacted
  • Vietnam War

  • 1964 Johnson announces new ambassador to South Vietnam
  • 1969 North Vietnamese encircle Ben Het
  • World War I

  • 1915 First Battle of the Isonzo
  • World War II

  • 1940 Hitler takes a tour of Paris



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)