Junio 22 en la Historia | bambinoides.com

Junio 22 en la Historia

Hitler invades the Soviet Union; France falls to Nazi Germany on what becomes a day of several key events during World War II; Bernstein, Copland, Seeger and others are named as Communists; Louis becomes champ; Joe Louis knocks out Max Schmeling in their boxing rematch; Entertainers Judy Garland and Fred Astaire die.

Hoy en la Historia,

Junio 22

en la Historia,

Today in History,

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BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”

1941:

Hitler invades the Soviet Union

Joseph Stalin

The Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin, has been taken completely by surprise

 

German forces have invaded the Soviet Union.

In a pre-dawn offensive, German troops pushed into the USSR from the south and west, with a third force making their way from the north towards Leningrad.

At 0500 GMT, an hour after the invasion began, the Nazi Minister for Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, went on national radio to read a proclamation by Adolf Hitler promising that the mobilisation of the German army would be the “greatest the world has ever seen”.

He was in a complete state of shock and walked without reason on streets and through woods
People’s War memories »

The invasion breaks the non-aggression pact signed by Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939.The pact has since been described by the German leader, Adolf Hitler, as a stain on Germany’s record.

Initial reports suggest that the German troops have made rapid progress.

A correspondent with the German Army on the northern front reported the Soviet Army opened fire immediately at the German advance, but German soldiers overran the first of the Soviet positions and within a few minutes had captured the frontier posts.

Germany is thought to have committed a massive force of more than three million men, supported by more than 3,000 tanks, 7,000 guns and nearly 3,000 aircraft.

They are nonetheless vastly outnumbered by the Red Army which has about nine million men under arms with another 500,000 in reserve.

Soviet arms and ability, however, are considered vastly inferior to the Germans.

The Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin, appears to have been taken completely by surprise.

Despite warnings from Britain and secret intelligence reports that war was imminent, Stalin has refused to prepare for an invasion, insisting that it would not happen until next summer.

In London the War Cabinet met early this morning to discuss the implications.

The Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, condemned the invasion in a broadcast on BBC radio, in which he said it marked a turning point in the war.

Calling Hitler a “bloodthirsty guttersnipe”, he said his own outspoken opposition to communism had “faded away” in the light of today’s events, and pledged Britain’s help for the Soviet Union in any way possible.

“The Russian danger is… our danger,” he said, “and the danger of the United States, just as the cause of any Russian fighting for his hearth and home is the cause of free men and free peoples in every quarter of the globe.”

In Context

In the next six months of Operation Barbarossa, as the invasion was known, Germany occupied what is now Belarus and most of Ukraine, and surrounded Leningrad (now St Petersburg).The German Army, though vastly superior to the Red Army, met a courageous resistance which made its advance far slower than expected.

At the same time, the retreating Soviet troops destroyed crops and burnt entire villages under Stalin’s “scorched earth” policy to prevent supplies falling into German hands.

Hitler had counted on taking Moscow before Russia’s punishing winter set in, but the half-starved German army didn’t even arrive on the outskirts until September.

They were finally driven back by a surprise counterattack by the Red Army on 6 December 1941.

In 1942, a second major push, this time in the south, ended in the surrender of the German Sixth Army at the bloody Battle of Stalingrad in early 1943.

The siege of Leningrad to the north also ended in German defeat in 1944, after 900 terrible days of starvation and bombardment in which about one million people died.

The failure of Operation Barbarossa was Hitler’s first major defeat on land, and marked the beginning of the end for Nazi Germany.

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Images from Today’s History:

 

Associated Press

History Channel

1950

Bernstein, Copland, Seeger and others are named as Communists

The Red Scare of the 1940s and 1950s famously ended the careers of numerous film-industry professionals and forced others to avoid blacklisting by repudiating their political beliefs and “naming names” of suspected Communist sympathizers to the House Committee on Un-Activities (HUAC). But Hollywood actors, directors and screenwriters were not the only victims of the Cold War anti-Communist purges in the entertainment industry. Prominent figures in the music industry were also targeted, including Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Lena Horne, Pete Seeger and Artie Shaw, all of whom were named publicly as suspected Communist sympathizers on this day in 1950, in the infamous publication Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television.

Red Channels was a tract issued by the right-wing journal Counterattack, the self-described “Newsletter of Facts to Combat Communism.” By 1950, Joseph McCarthy and the HUAC had already been at work for several years, and figures like singer Paul Robeson and the so-called Hollywood Ten had already been blacklisted, but Red Channels sought to go further, exposing what it called a widespread Communist effort to achieve “domination of American broadcasting and telecasting, preparatory to the day when…[the] Party will assume control of this nation as the result of a final upheaval and civil war.” Some even believe that the men responsible for Red Channels—including several former members of the FBI—were given illegal access to the confidential files of HUAC in preparing their report, which exposed 151 names in the entertainment industry to public scrutiny and the threat of blacklisting

Joining famous names like Orson Welles, Lillian Hellman, Arthur Miller and Dorothy Parker on the Red Channels list were the aforementioned Bernstein, Copland, Horne, Seeger and Shaw and numerous other musical figures, including the legendary harmonica player Larry Adler, the folksinger Burl Ives, former Library of Congress folklorist Alan Lomax and The New York Times music critic Olin Downes. The evidence of Communist leanings offered in Red Channels included Lena Horne’s appearance on the letterhead of a South African famine relief program, Aaron Copland’s appearance on a panel at a 1949 Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace and Leonard Bernstein’s affiliation with the Committee to Re-Elect Benjamin J. Davis, a black, socialist New York City councilman.

In the end, Red Channels caused some of those named to be blacklisted—Pete Seeger, most famously—to fight publicly to prove their “loyalty” to the United States and still others to repudiate their political pasts and provide the HUAC with names of other suspected prominent leftists.

 1937

Louis becomes champ

In Chicago’s Comiskey Park, Joe Louis wins the world heavyweight boxing title when he defeats American Jim Braddock in an eighth-round knockout. Louis was the first African American heavyweight champ since Jack Johnson, who lost the title in 1915. During his subsequent reign, the longest in the history of the heavyweight division, Louis successfully defended his title 25 times, scoring 21 knockouts.

Joe Louis, born in 1914, was the seventh son of a sharecropping family that worked in the cotton fields of Lexington, Alabama. His family moved to Chicago when he was 10, and two years later Louis dropped out of school to work in a Ford factory. He took up boxing at the Brewster East Side Gymnasium and at age 16 entered his first amateur tournament. He proved an outstanding amateur, winning the U.S. Amateur Athletic Union light heavyweight crown in 1934. On July 4, 1934, he defeated Jack Kracken in his professional debut. Louis went on to win his first 27 professional fights, beating the likes of former heavyweight champions Primo Carnera and Max Baer, both by knockouts.

Remembering the experience of Jack Johnson, who fled the United States in 1912 to escape persecution stemming from his marriage to a white woman, Louis’ black managers instructed their protege to keep a tight lip, never be photographed with a white woman, and never smile after knocking down a white man. On June 19, 1936, Louis met Max Schmeling, a former heavyweight champ from Germany, at Yankee Stadium. Schmeling handed Louis his first defeat, knocking him out in the 12th round. Many white Americans celebrated the victory of Schmeling, a dutiful Nazi at the time, over the previously invincible Louis.

Joe Louis, however, did not stay down for long, and on June 22, 1937, he met champ Jim Braddock in Comiskey Park for a title fight. Louis was dropped early in the bout, but he rose from the canvas to knock out Braddock in the eighth round. After easily defeating two challengers, Louis met Schmeling for a dramatic rematch at Yankee Stadium on June 22, 1938–exactly one year after he won the heavyweight title. By the summer of 1938, Adolf Hitler was menacing Europe, and America found itself changing loyalties to root for Louis over Schmeling, who was condemned as a symbol of Nazi oppression. It took Louis two minutes and four seconds to defeat the German. Louis, already a great hero of African Americans everywhere, was hailed as a hero for all Americans.

Joe Louis went undefeated in his nearly 12-year heavyweight reign, defeating a total of 25 challengers. During World War II, he was inducted into the U.S. Army, and he traveled extensively, staging matches, giving boxing exhibitions, and refereeing bouts. After the war, he defended his title a few more times and in March 1947 announced his retirement. In September 1950, he returned to boxing, but lost to his successor as champ, Ezzard Charles, in a 15-round decision. He won eight more fights during the next year but in October 1951 was knocked out in the eighth round by the up-and-coming Rocky Marciano. He retired permanently after this comeback attempt. In his retirement, Joe Louis suffered from tax problems and financial difficulties. He later worked as a host at a Las Vegas casino. He died in 1981.

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This Day in History

History Channel

1944

FDR signs G.I. Bill

GI_Bill_signing

On this day in 1944, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the G.I. Bill, an unprecedented act of legislation designed to compensate returning members of the armed services–known as G.I.s–for their efforts in World War II.

As the last of its sweeping New Deal reforms, Roosevelt’s administration created the G.I. Bill–officially the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944–hoping to avoid a relapse into the Great Depression after the war ended. FDR particularly wanted to prevent a repeat of the Bonus March of 1932, when 20,000 unemployed veterans and their families flocked in protest to Washington. The American Legion, a veteran’s organization, successfully fought for many of the provisions included in the bill, which gave returning servicemen access to unemployment compensation, low-interest home and business loans, and–most importantly–funding for education.

By giving veterans money for tuition, living expenses, books, supplies and equipment, the G.I. Bill effectively transformed higher education in America. Before the war, college had been an option for only 10-15 percent of young Americans, and university campuses had become known as a haven for the most privileged classes. By 1947, in contrast, vets made up half of the nation’s college enrollment; three years later, nearly 500,000 Americans graduated from college, compared with 160,000 in 1939.

As educational institutions opened their doors to this diverse new group of students, overcrowded classrooms and residences prompted widespread improvement and expansion of university facilities and teaching staffs. An array of new vocational courses were developed across the country, including advanced training in education, agriculture, commerce, mining and fishing–skills that had previously been taught only informally.

The G.I. Bill became one of the major forces that drove an economic expansion in America that lasted 30 years after World War II. Only 20 percent of the money set aside for unemployment compensation under the bill was given out, as most veterans found jobs or pursued higher education. Low interest home loans enabled millions of American families to move out of urban centers and buy or build homes outside the city, changing the face of the suburbs. Over 50 years, the impact of the G.I. Bill was enormous, with 20 million veterans and dependents using the education benefits and 14 million home loans guaranteed, for a total federal investment of $67 billion. Among the millions of Americans who have taken advantage of the bill are former Presidents George H.W. Bush and Gerald Ford, former Vice President Al Gore and entertainers Johnny Cash, Ed McMahon, Paul Newman and Clint Eastwood.

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:

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 Hispanópolis:

Junio 22 se celebra…
  • El Salvador: Día del maestro.
Junio 22 en la Historia del Mundo …
2007 España: Finaliza el programa de radio No somos nadie, de M80 Radio
1986 Diego Armando Maradona anota dos goles en el triunfo por 2-1 frente a Inglaterra en la [[Copa Mundial de Fútbol.
1941 Operación Barbarroja – Alemania invade la Unión Soviética.
1941 Primera presentación del Teatro Experimental de la Universidad de Chile.
1940 Francia se rinde ante Alemania durante la 2ª Guerra Mundial
1928 Primera línea telefónica internacional de Chile. Comunicaba Santiago de Chile con Montevideo y Buenos Aires
1911 Fuerzas Federales de la república Mexicana recuperan la ciudad de Tijuana tomada por los filibusteros.
1827 El gobierno de Chile disuelve el Congreso y consulta a las provincias sobre una nueva constitución, que se promulgara en 1828.
1815 Napoleón Bonaparte abdica por segunda vez.
1484 España: el ejército cristiano emprende un nuevo ataque a la vega granadina, haciendo talas y arrasando considerables terrenos en Alhendín, Otura, y sucesivamente en Gójar, Dílar, La Zubia y Armilla.
Nacimientos Notables en Junio 22 …
1985 Karla Cossío, actriz cubana-mexicana.
1984 Janko Tipsarevic, tenista serbio.
1981 Chris Urbanowicz, guitarrista de la banda británica Editors.
1979 Thomas Voeckler, ciclista francés.
1975 Andreas Klöden, ciclista alemán.
1974 Donald Faison, actor estadounidense.
1973 Carson Daly, conductor de televisión estadounidense.
1971 Mary Lynn Rajskub, actriz estadounidense
1970 Steven Page, cantante canadiense (Barenaked Ladies).
1968 Darrell Armstrong, jugador de baloncesto estadounidense.
1966 Emmanuelle Seigner, actriz francesa.
1966 Michael Park, piloto de rally británico.
1965 Lubomír Moravcík, futbolista eslovaco.
1964 Dan Brown, escritor estadounidense.
1963 Randy Couture, luchador y artista marcial estadounidense.
1962 Clyde Drexler, ex-jugador de baloncesto estadounidense.
1962 Stephen Chow, actor y director de cine hongkonés.
1961 Jimmy Sommerville, cantante escocés.
1959 Nicola Sirkis, múcico francés (Indochine).
1958 Bruce Campbell, actor estadounidense.
1957 Garry Gary Beers, baterista australiano de la banda INXS.
1956 Alfons De Wolf, ciclista belga.
1956 Tim Russ, actor estadounidense.
1954 Freddie Prinze, comediante y actor estadounidense.
1954 Wolfgang Becker, director de cine alemán.
1953 Cyndi Lauper, cantante estadounidense.
1952 Graham Greene, actor canadiense.
1949 Meryl Streep, actriz estadounidense.
1948 Todd Rundgren, cantantautor estadounidense.
1947 Jerry Rawlings, político ghanés.
1947 Pete Maravich, jugador de baloncesto estadounidense.
1946 Eliades Ochoa, guitarrista cubano (Buena Vista Social Club).
1946 Jósef Oleksy, político polaco.
1945 Pere Gimferrer, escritor y académico español.
1944 Klaus Maria Brandauer, actor austríaco.
1943 Eumir Deodato, músico, productor y compositor brasileño.
1941 Ed Bradley, periodista estadounidense.
1941 Michael Lerner, actor estadounidense.
1940 Abbas Kiarostami, cineasta iraní.
1938 Norberto Luis La Porta, político argentino
1936 Gemma Cuervo, actriz española.
1936 Hermeto Pascoal, músico brasileño.
1936 Juan José Alonso Millán, comediógrafo español.
1936 Kris Kristofferson, actor y cantautor estadounidense
1932 Soraya Esfandiary, princesa iraní.
1922 Bill Blass, diseñador de moda estadounidense.
1921 Joseph Papp, director de cine estadounidense.
1920 Paul Frees, actor de voz estadounidense.
1913 Fernando Moreno Barberá, arquitecto español.
1910 Konrad Zuse, ingeniero alemán.
1910 Peter Pears, tenor inglés.
1907 Mike Todd, productor de cine estadounidense.
1906 Billy Wilder, director de cine estadounidense de origen austriaco.
1903 John Dillinger, asaltante estadounidense.
1902 Marguerite De La Motte, actriz estadounidense.
1899 Michal Kalecki, economista polaco.
1898 Erich Maria Remarque, escritor germano-estadounidense.
1897 Norbert Elias, sociologo alemán.
1892 Robert Ritter von Greim, piloto y oficial de ejército alemán.
1887 Julian Sorell Huxley, biólogo británico.
1885 Milan Vidmar, ingeniero eléctrico y ajedrecista esloveno.
1884 James Rector, atleta estadounidense.
1876 Pascual Díaz Barreto, arzobispo y primado de México.
1861 Conde von Spee, marino y estratega alemán.
1858 Giacomo Puccini, compositor italiano.
1856 H. Rider Haggard, novelista inglés.
1845 Richard John Seddon, político y abogado británico.
1837 Paul Morphy, ajedrezista estadounidense.
1830 Theodor Leschetizky, pianista austriaco de origen polaco.
1805 Giuseppe Mazzini, revolucionario e ideólogo italiano.
1777 Guillermo Brown, primer almirante de las fuerzas navales de Argentina.
1767 Wilhelm von Humboldt, erudito y estadista alemán.
1757 George Vancouver, oficial de marina y explorador británico.
1738 Jacques Delille, poeta francés.
Fallecimientos Notables en Junio 22 …
2008 Albert Cossery, escritor egipcio en lengua francesa (n. 1913).
2008 Dody Goodman, actriz estadounidense (n. 1914).
2008 George Denis Patrick Carlin, actor y comediante estadounidense (n. 1937).
2004 Robert William Bemer, pionero en computación estadounidense.
2004 Thomas Gold, astrofísico estadounidense.
2002 Conrad Hansen, pianista alemán.
1995 Yves Congar, cardenal francés.
1992 Virgil Georgiu, escritor rumano.
1990 Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, físico ruso, Premio Nobel de Física en 1958.
1989 Lee Calhoun, atleta estadounidense.
1987 Fred Astaire, cantante, actor y bailarín estadounidense.
1984 Joseph Losey, director de cine estadounidense.
1979 Louis Chiron, piloto de carreras monegasco.
1969 Judy Garland, actriz y cantante estadounidense.
1965 David O. Selznick, productor de cine estadounidense.
1956 José Perotti, escultor, pintor y grabador chileno, Premio Nacional de Arte de Chile.
1936 Moritz Schlick, físico y filósofo alemán.
1906 Fritz Schaudinn, zoólogo alemán.
1890 Francisco Menéndez Valdivieso, político salvadoreño.
1874 Howard Staunton, ajedrecista británico.
1872 Juana de Vega, escritora española
1865 Ángel Saavedra, duque de Rivas, escritor español.
1580 Hernando de Acuña, militar y poeta español.
1563 Francisco de Villagra, compañero de Pedro de Valdivia y ex-gobernador de Chile.
1527 Nicolás Maquiavelo, escritor y político italiano.
1453 Álvaro de Luna, político español.
1377 Eduardo III de Inglaterra, rey de Inglaterra.
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History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1944 FDR signs G.I. Bill
  • American Revolution

  • 1775 Congress issues Continental currency
  • Automotive

  • 2001 Blockbuster hit movie “The Fast and the Furious” released
  • Civil War

  • 1864 Lee strikes back at Petersburg
  • Cold War

  • 1989 Cease-fire established in Angolan civil war
  • Crime

  • 2011 Notorious Boston mobster Whitey Bulger is arrested
  • Disaster

  • 1962 Mysterious crash in Guadeloupe
  • General Interest

  • 1611 Hudson set adrift by mutineers
  • 1937 Louis becomes champ
  • 1945 Battle of Okinawa ends
  • Hollywood

  • 2008 George Carlin dies
  • Literary

  • 1906 Anne Morrow Lindbergh is born
  • 1964 Da Vinci Code author Dan Brown is born
  • Music

  • 1950 Bernstein, Copland, Seeger and others are named as Communists
  • Old West

  • 1876 General Santa Anna dies in Mexico City
  • Presidential

  • 1944 FDR signs GI bill
  • Sports

  • 1986 Hand of God helps out Maradona
  • Vietnam War

  • 1971 South Vietnamese fight for Fire Base Fuller
  • 1972 New troops sent to An Loc
  • World War I

  • 1898 Erich Maria Remarque born
  • World War II

  • 1941 Germany launches Operation Barbarossa—the invasion of Russia
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Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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