Junio 21 en la Historia | bambinoides.com

Junio 21 en la Historia

Three civil rights workers disappear in Mississippi; US troops take Okinawa; U.S. Constitution ratified; John Hinckley, Jr. found not guilty by reason of insanity for shooting President Ronald Reagan and three others; Britain’s Prince William born.

Hoy en la Historia,

Junio 21

en la Historia,

Today in History,

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BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”

1945:

US troops take Okinawa

Marines take cover amid wrecked homes and rubble of Okinawa's capital city, Naha

Marines take cover amid wrecked homes and rubble of Okinawa’s capital city, Naha. Thousands of US troops have been killed or wounded in the conflict

 

The Japanese island of Okinawa has finally fallen to the Americans after a long and bloody battle.

The island, situated 340 miles (550km) south of the Japanese mainland, will now provide the Americans with an invaluable air and naval base from which to launch a sustained and forceful attack on the mainland.

It is estimated more than 90,000 Japanese troops were killed in the 82-day conflict.

I personally saw one Kamikaze hit one of (the aircraft carriers) whilst I was operating the plot for incoming bandits
People’s War memories »

America also suffered heavy losses – at this stage 6,990 servicemen have been reported killed or missing and 25,598 wounded.

Mopping up

In a statement issued today US Fleet Admiral Chester W Nimitz said: “After 82 days of fighting the battle of Okinawa has been won.

“Organised resistance ceased on June 21. Enemy garrisons in two small pockets are being mopped up.”

The Japanese fought a desperate battle until the bitter end with many hiding out in caves on the southern-most tip of the island.

As the US forces closed in many threw themselves off 150ft (45.7m)cliffs or waded into the sea to drown rather than be taken prisoner.

More than 4,000 Japanese have so far been captured.

The conflict began on 1 April, when America’s newly-formed 10th Army, led by Lieutenant-General Simon Bolivar Buckner, landed on Okinawa’s western coast.

By 21 April most of the island had been taken by US troops but a stalemate developed in the south around Okinawa’s capital city, Naha.

The Japanese were able to secure a strong defensive position in the rugged, cave-riddled terrain and it took several weeks to finally win the battle.

In Context
The Japanese commander-in-chief on Okinawa, Lieutenant-General Ushijima Mitsuru, committed suicide on 22 June.Okinawa was the last great amphibious campaign of the war.

America sent 170,000 troops and 1,213 warships and British forces also took part.

The island was defended by nearly 100,000 Japanese troops.

Lt-Gen Ushijima relied on mass kamikaze attacks as his main line of defence against the initial assault. More than 2,000 attacks were launched during the conflict.

The allies suffered unprecedented losses with 36 warships and landing craft being sunk, 763 aircraft lost and more than 12,500 servicemen killed.

Only 7,400 Japanese troops survived the conflict to become prisoners of war.

America returned Okinawa to Japan in 1972.

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Images from Today’s History:

 

Associated Press

History Channel

civil-missing_4

civil-missing_3

On June 21, 1964, three young civil rights workers—a 21-year-old black Mississippian, James Chaney, and two white New Yorkers, Andrew Goodman, 20, and Michael Schwerner, 24—were murdered near Philadelphia, in Nashoba County, Mississippi. They had been working to register black voters in Mississippi during Freedom Summer and had gone to investigate the burning of a black church. They were arrested by the police on trumped-up charges, imprisoned for several hours, and then released after dark into the hands of the Ku Klux Klan, who beat and murdered them. It was later proven in court that a conspiracy existed between members of Neshoba County’s law enforcement and the Ku Klux Klan to kill them.

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This Day in History

History Channel

1788

U.S. Constitution ratified

U.S. Constitution ratified-group-photo

U.S. Constitution ratified_1

Ratification of the constitution by the original colonies

Today's constitutional coverage after acquisitions and expansion

Today’s constitutional coverage after acquisitions and expansion

New Hampshire becomes the ninth and last necessary state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, thereby making the document the law of the land.

By 1786, defects in the post-Revolutionary War Articles of Confederation were apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce. Congress endorsed a plan to draft a new constitution, and on May 25, 1787, the Constitutional Convention convened at Independence Hall in Philadelphia. On September 17, 1787, after three months of debate moderated by convention president George Washington, the new U.S. constitution, which created a strong federal government with an intricate system of checks and balances, was signed by 38 of the 41 delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine of the 13 states.

constitution-1Beginning on December 7, five states–Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut–ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document, as it failed to reserve undelegated powers to the states and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. In February 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the U.S. Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789. In June, Virginia ratified the Constitution, followed by New York in July.

On September 25, 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted 12 amendments to the U.S. Constitution–the Bill of Rights–and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of these amendments were ratified in 1791. In November 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. Rhode Island, which opposed federal control of currency and was critical of compromise on the issue of slavery, resisted ratifying the Constitution until the U.S. government threatened to sever commercial relations with the state. On May 29, 1790, Rhode Island voted by two votes to ratify the document, and the last of the original 13 colonies joined the United States. Today the U.S. Constitution is the oldest written constitution in operation in the world.

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:

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 Hispanópolis:

Junio 21 en la Historia del Mundo …
2006 Se descubren dos nuevas lunas de Plutón que serían bautuizadas como Nix y Hydra.
2004 SpaceShipOne se convierte en el primer cohete espacial de origen privado.
2002 La Organización Mundial de la salud declara Europa zona libre de Poliomielitis.
1982 John Hinckley es declarado culpable por el intento de asesinato del presidente de los Estados Unidos Ronald Reagan.
1977 Menachem Begin se convierte en Primer Ministro israelí.
1964 Tres activistas de los derechos civiles, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney y Mickey Schwerner, son asesinados en Neshoba County, Mississippi, por miembros del Ku Klux Klan.
1963 Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini es elegido como el papa Pablo VI.
1945 Segunda Guerra Mundial: Fin de la Batalla de Okinawa.
1942 Segunda Guerra Mundial: Tobruk cae en manos de las fuerzas italianas y alemana.
1942 Segunda Guerra Mundial: Un submarino japonés navega por el río Columbia en Oregón, disparando 17 torpedos en Fort Stevens en un de los pocos ataques japoneses en territorio estadounidense.
1940 Segunda Guerra Mundial: Francia se rinde a Alemania.
1919 El almirante Ludwig von Reuter llega la flota alemana a Scapa Flow, Orkney.
1898 Guam se convierte en un territorio de Estados Unidos.
1887 Jubileo de Oro de la reina Victoria I de Inglaterra.
1831 Cyrus McCormick inventa la segadora.
1825 Creación del distrito de San Jerónimo, en la provincia de Andahuaylas, Perú, por parte de José de San Martín.
1824 Guerra de la Independendia griega: las fuerzas egipcias capturan la ciudad de Psara en el Mar Egeo.
1813 Guerra de la Independencia Española: Batalla de Vitoria.
1798 Las tropas británicas derrotan a los irlandeses en la Batalla de Vinegar Hill.
1788 New Hampshire ratifica se convierte en el estado número 9 de los Estados Unidos.
1665 Los primeros soldados del Régiment de Carignan-Salières llegan a Quebec para invcadir los territorios de los Iroquois.
1621 Ejecución de 27 nobles checos en Praga como consecuencia de la Batalla de White Mountain.
1582 Incidente enHonnoji en Kyoto, Japón.
1483 España: Se instala por primera vez, para sitiar Granada, el campamento cristiano en el paraje nombrado Ojos de Huecar, mas tarde ciudad de Santa Fe.
0524 Godomar, rey de Burgundios derrota a los francos en la Batalla de Vézeronce.
Nacimientos Notables en Junio 21 …
1984 Alicia Alighatti, actriz porno estadounidense.
1984 Franck Perera, piloto de automovilismo francés.
1982 Guillermo de Inglaterra, primogénito del príncipe Carlos y Lady Diana Spencer
1981 Brandon Flowers, vocalista de la banda The Killers.
1980 José Diego Álvarez, futbolista español.
1980 Sendy Rleal, beisbolista dominicano.
1979 Chris Pratt, actor estadounidense.
1978 Cristiano Lupatelli, futbolista italiano.
1978 Erica Durance, actriz canadiense.
1978 Jack Guzman, actor estadounidense.
1976 Mike Einziger, músico estadounidense (Incubus).
1976 Nigel Lappin, futbolista australiano.
1974 Craig Lowndes, piloto de carreras australiano.
1973 Juliette Lewis, actriz estadounidense.
1972 Alon Hilu, escritor israelí
1971 Anette Olzon, cantante sueco.
1971 Marianne Lie Berg, filósofo noruego.
1970 Pete Rock, rapero estadounidense.
1970 Sindee Coxx, actriz porno estadounidense.
1969 Gabriella Paruzzi, esquiador italiano.
1967 Jim Breuer, cómico estadounidense.
1967 Pierre Omidyar, millonario estadounidense de origen iraní.
1966 Alisyn Camerota, periodista estadounidense.
1966 Gretchen Carlson, periodista estadounidense.
1966 Nan Woods, actriz estadounidense.
1966 Rudi Bakhtiar, periodista estadounidense.
1965 Larry Wachowski, director de cine estadounidense.
1965 Yang Liwei, astronauta chino.
1964 Doug Savant, actor estadounidense.
1964 Sammi Davis, actor británico.
1962 Viktor Tsoi, músico ruso.
1961 Kip Winger, músico estadounidense.
1959 Kathy Mattea, cantante estadounidense.
1959 Marcella Detroit, cantante estadounidense. (Shakespear’s Sister)
1958 Gennady Padalka, cosmonauta estadounidense.
1957 Berkeley Breathed, dibujante estadounidense.
1955 Leigh McCloskey, actor estadounidense.
1955 Michel Platini, futbolista francés.
1955 Tim Bray, programador informático canadiense.
1954 Augustus Pablo, músico jamaicano.
1954 Mark Kimmitt, general estadounidense.
1954 Robert Menasse, escritor austríaco.
1954 Robert Pastorelli, actor estadounidense.
1953 Benazir Bhutto, primera ministra pakistaní.
1953 Michael Bowen, actor estadounidense.
1952 Kôichi Mashimo, director de anime japonés.
1951 Nils Lofgren, músico estadounidense.
1950 Anne Carson, poetisa canadiense.
1950 Gérard Lanvin, actor francés.
1950 Joey Kramer, bateristista y percusionista de Aerosmith.
1950 Vasilis Papakonstantinou, cantante griego.
1948 Andrzej Sapkowski, escritor polaco.
1948 Ian McEwan, novelista británico.
1948 Lionel Rose, boxeador australiano.
1947 Joey Molland, músico inglés. (Badfinger)
1947 Meredith Baxter, actriz estadounidense.
1947 Michael Gross, actor estadounidense.
1947 Shirin Ebadi, abogada y activista iraní, Premio Nobel de la Paz en 2003.
1946 Brenda Holloway, músico estadounidense.
1945 Adam Zagajewski, poeta, novelista y ensayista polaco.
1944 Corinna Tsopei, modelo griega.
1944 Ray Davies, músico inglés (The Kinks).
1944 Tony Scott, director de cine británico.
1943 Salomé, cantante española.
1942 Henry S. Taylor, escritor estadounidense.
1941 Joe Flaherty, actor estadounidense.
1941 John O’Kea, piloto de carreras galés.
1940 Mariette Hartley, actriz estadounidense.
1940 Michael Ruse, filósofo canadiense.
1939 Rubén Berríos Martínez, político puertorriqueño.
1938 Ron Ely, actor estadounidense.
1935 Françoise Sagan, escritora francesa.
1932 Lalo Schifrin, pianista y compositor argentino.
1932 O.C. Smith, cantante estadounidense. (d. 2001)
1930 Sir Gerald Kaufman, político británico.
1929 Abdel Halim Hafez, actor y cantante egipcio. (d. 1977)
1929 Alexandre Lagoya, guitarrista greco-italiano. (d. 1999)
1926 Conrad Hall, director de cine tahitiano. (d. 2003)
1925 Giovanni Spadolini, político italiano.
1925 Maureen Stapleton, actriz estadounidense.
1924 Jean Laplanche, pensador francés.
1924 Pontus Hultén, coleccionista de arte sueco. (d. 2006)
1921 Hans Koning, escritor y polemista holandés.
1921 Jane Russell, actriz estadounidense.
1921 Jean de Broglie, político francés.
1921 Judy Holliday, actriz estadounidense.
1919 Paolo Soleri, arquitecto estadounidense.
1919 Vladimir Simagin, ajedrecista ruso.
1918 James Clyde Mitchell, sociologo and antropologo inglés.
1916 José D’Elía, sindicalista y político uruguayo.
1916 Joseph Cyril Bamford, inventor e industrialista inglés.
1914 William Vickrey, economista canadiense.
1912 Kazimierz Leski, ingeniero, aviador polaco. (d. 2000)
1912 Mary McCarthy, escritor estadounidense. (d. 1989)
1910 Aleksandr Tvardovsky, poeta soviético. (d. 1971)
1908 William Frankena, filósofo estadounidense. (d. 1994)
1906 Harold Spina, compositor estadounidense. (d. 1997)
1905 Jean-Paul Sartre, filósofo y escritor francés.
1903 Al Hirschfeld, caricaturista estadounidense.
1898 Donald C. Peattie, botánico y escritor estadounidense. (d. 1964)
1896 Charles B. Momsen, inventor estadounidense. (d. 1967)
1893 Alois Hába, compositor checo. (d. 1973)
1892 Reinhold Niebuhr, teólogo protestante. (d. 1971)
1891 Hermann Scherchen, director de orquesta alemán.
1891 Pier Luigi Nervi, arquitecto italiano. (d. 1979)
1889 Ralph Craig, atleta estadounidense.
1884 Claude Auchinleck, comandante del ejército británico.
1882 Fyodor Gladkov, escritor ruso. (d. 1958)
1882 Lluís Companys i Jover, político catalán. (d. 1940)
1882 Rockwell Kent, artista estadounidense. (d. 1971)
1880 Arnold Gesell, psicólog y pediatra estadounidense. (d. 1961)
1880 Josiah Stamp, hombre de negocios británico. (d. 1941)
1876 Willem Hendrik Keesom, físico holandés. (d. 1956)
1870 Clara Immerwahr, química alemana.
1868 Edwin Stephen Goodrich, zoólogo inglés. (d. 1946)
1864 Heinrich Wölfflin, historiador de arte suizo. (d. 1945)
1863 Max Wolf, astrónomo alemán. (d. 1932)
1862 Damrong Rajanubhab, príncipe tailandés. (d. 1943)
1859 Henry Ossawa Tanner, pintor estadounidense. (d. 1937)
1858 Medardo Rosso, escultor italiano. (d. 1928)
1850 Daniel Carter Beard, fundador de los Boy Scouts en Estados Unidos.
1850 Rafael Salinas Sánchez, político español.
1839 Machado de Assis, escritor brasileño. (d. 1908)
1828 Ferdinand André Fouqué, geólogo francés. (d. 1904)
1825 William Stubbs, historiador y obispo inglés. (d. 1901)
1823 Jean Chacornac, astrónomo francés. (d. 1873)
1812 Moses Hess, socialista y nacionalista judío. (d. 1875)
1811 Carlo Matteucci, físico italiano. (d. 1868)
1810 Manuel Payno, político y escritor mexicano.
1805 Charles Thomas Jackson, científico estadounidense. (d. 1880)
1798 Wolfgang Menzel, escritor alemán. (d. 1873)
1791 Robert Napier, ingeniero británico. (d. 1876)
1782 Pyotr Kotlyarevsky, general ruso. (d. 1852)
1781 Siméon-Denis Poisson, matemático y físico francés. (d. 1840)
1774 Daniel D. Tompkins, VicePresidente de los Estados Unidos. (d. 1825)
1764 Sidney Smith, almirante británico. (d. 1840)
1763 Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, filósofo francés. (d. 1845)
1759 Alexander J. Dallas, banquero y hombre de negocios estadounidense. (d. 1817)
1736 Enoch Poor, general estadounidense. (d. 1780)
1732 Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, compositor alemán. (d. 1791)
1731 Martha Washington, esposa de George Washington.
1730 Motoori Norinaga, educador japonés. (d. 1801)
1712 Luc Urbain de Bouexic, comte de Guichen, almirante francés. (d. 1790)
1676 Anthony Collins, filósofo británico. (d. 1729)
1646 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, filósofo y científico alemán. (d. 1716)
1535 Leonhard Rauwolf, físico y botánico alemán. (d. 1596)
1226 Rey Boleslao V de Polonia (d. 1279)
1002 Papa León IX (d. 1054)
Fallecimientos Notables en Junio 21 …
2009 Julio Valdeón Baruque, historiador y catedrático español (n. 1936).
2008 Adalberto Almeida y Merino, arzobispo mexicano (n. 1916).
2008 Kermit Love, diseñador de marionetas estadounidense (n. 1916).
2007 Bob Evans, restaurador estadounidense. (b. 1918)
2005 Jaime Cardinal Sin, arzobispo de Manila (b. 1928)
2004 Leonel Brizola, político brasileño. (b. 1922)
2003 Leon Uris, escritor estadounidense.
2001 Carroll O’Connor, actor estadounidense.
2001 John Lee Hooker, cantante y guitarrista de blues estadounidense.
2000 Alan Hovhaness, compositor estadounidense. (b. 1911)
1999 Kami, batería japonés. (Malice Mizer) (b. 1973)
1997 Fidel Velázquez Sánchez, líder laborista mexicano. (b. 1900)
1988 Pedrito Rico, Cantante español.
1986 Assi Rahbani, compositor libanés.
1985 Tage Erlander, Primee Ministro de Suecia (b. 1901)
1980 Bert Kaempfert, compositor alemán. (b. 1923)
1979 Angus Maclise, músico estadounidense. (b. 1938)
1976 Margaret Herrick, cineasta estadounidense. (b. 1902)
1970 Sukarno, presidente indonesio.
1969 Maureen Connolly, tenista estadounidense. (b. 1934)
1964 Andrew Goodman, activista de los derechos civiles norteamericano. (b. 1943)
1964 James Chaney, activista de los derechos civiles norteamericano. (b. 1943)
1964 Michael Schwerner, activista de los derechos civiles norteamericano. (b. 1939)
1957 Johannes Stark, físico alemán, premio Nobel de Física en 1919.
1952 Wilfrid ‘Wop’ May, aviador canadiense. (b. 1896)
1951 Charles Dillon Perrine, astrónomo estadounidense. (b. 1867)
1940 Smedley Butler, general estadounidense. (b. 1881)
1934 Thorne Smith, escritor estadounidense. (b. 1892)
1914 Bertha von Suttner, pacifista y escritora austríaca, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1905.
1908 Benedict Friedlaender, sexólogo y activista alemán.
1908 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, compositor ruso.
1876 Antonio López de Santa Anna, político mexicano.
1874 Anders Jonas Ångström, fisiólogo sueco. (b. 1814)
1824 Étienne Aignan, escritor francés. (b. 1773)
1796 Richard Gridley, soldado estadounidense. (b. 1710)
1738 Charles Townshend, aristócrata inglés. (b. 1674)
1652 Inigo Jones, arquitecto inglés. (b. 1573)
1621 Kryštof Harant, intelectual polaco. (b. 1564)
1591 Aloysius Gonzaga, santo italiano. (b. 1568)
1586 Martín de Azpilicueta, intelectual español.
1582 Oda Nobunaga, señor de la guerra japonés. (b. 1534)
1547 Sebastiano del Piombo, pintor italiano.
1529 John Skelton, poeta inglés.
1527 Nicolás Maquiavelo, filósofo italiano.
1377 Eduardo III, rey de Inglaterra.
1305 Wenceslao II de Bohemia y Polonia (b. 1271)
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History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1788 U.S. Constitution ratified
  • American Revolution

  • 1779 Spain declares war against Great Britain
  • Automotive

  • 1947 Mille Miglia race is reborn after World War II
  • Civil War

  • 1864 Grant extends the Petersburg line
  • Cold War

  • 1963 French withdraw navy from NATO
  • Crime

  • 1964 The KKK kills three civil rights activists
  • Disaster

  • 1990 Earthquake devastates Iran
  • General Interest

  • 1813 French defeated in Spain
  • 1916 Pershing attacked by Mexican troops
  • 1964 Civil rights workers disappear
  • 1982 Hinckley not guilty by reason of insanity
  • Hollywood

  • 1920 Pickford and Fairbanks mobbed by crowds
  • Literary

  • 1956 Arthur Miller refuses to name communists
  • Music

  • 1965 Mr. Tambourine Man is released, and the folk-rock revolution is on
  • Old West

  • 1892 Lot Smith, Mormon soldier, is killed by Indians
  • Presidential

  • 1810 Zachary Taylor and Richard Nixon marry their future first ladies
  • Sports

  • 1970 Pele leads Brazil over Italy
  • Vietnam War

  • 1966 Rolling Thunder raids continue
  • 1969 Communists storm U.S. base near Tay Ninh
  • World War I

  • 1916 U.S. soldiers attacked by Mexican government troops
  • World War II

  • 1942 Allies surrender at Tobruk, Libya
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Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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