Julio 15 en la Historia | bambinoides.com

Julio 15 en la Historia

Serbs force Muslims out of Srebrenica; President Richard Nixon announces his breakthrough trip to China; Fashion designer Gianni Versace slain; Aerospace giant Boeing founded; Dutch painter Rembrandt born.


Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 15

en la Historia,

Today in History,

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BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”

1995:

Serbs force Muslims out of Srebrenica

Women and children refugees on the road

Thousands of women and children have been expelled from the ‘safe haven’

Thousands of Muslim refugees are fleeing the captured “safe area” of Srebrenica forced out by the Bosnian Serbs.United Nations officials say it is the biggest “ethnic cleansing” operation since World War II.

Some 40,000 women, children and elderly people have been ordered to leave the compound at Potocari where they had been under the protection of Dutch peacekeepers.

The Dutch soldiers – part of the UN peacekeeping force – appear to have been powerless to defend Srebrenica against the Serbs who seized control of the town on 11 July.

Atrocities

Reports say all Muslim men over 16 were rounded up as they attempted to flee the advancing Serbs – but these have not yet been confirmed.

The Bosnian Serbs have refused access to journalists and international organisations.

There are many tales of atrocities – rape, massacres and psychological torture – circulating among the refugees now arriving in the northern Bosnian town of Tuzla.

The biggest fear is for the men who have been left behind. Many wives and families fear they will never see them again.

One woman told relief workers she had seen the Serbs slit her husband’s throat and that she had seen at least eight other bodies.

The Bosnian Prime Minister, Haris Siladjdzic, has blamed the Bosnian Serbs for the atrocities.

“Massive massacres were committed by Serbian terrorists upon the civilians of Srebrenica,” he said.

“There are hundreds of witnesses that arrived yesterday to Tuzla, speaking of horrendous crimes there; hundreds of bodies, naked, stabbed and killed by Serb terrorists.”

The refugees are huddled together in flimsy shelters in a temporary UN camp.

Anne-Marie Huby of Medecins Sans Frontieres said: “These people are already survivors of earlier waves of ethnic cleansing in 1992 and 1993.

“They really thought, when they saw the Serbs come in this time, that it was their last hour. Our aid workers say people are absolutely convinced they will not see their men again.”

Dehydrated

The makeshift camp has virtually no toilets and aid workers are warning that diarrhoea could become endemic within days.

Thousands spent last night sleeping rough and have no daytime shelter from the strong winds and blistering sun, leading to fears of mass dehydration and heat exhaustion.

The United Nations has begun busing refugees out of the reception camp to other sites so they can be better cared for.

The Bosnian Serbs now appear to have their sights set on Zepa and Gorazde, two other UN-designated “safe areas”. If they succeed in taking them, then there will be virtually no Muslims left in the eastern half of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

In Context
More details of the atrocities committed in the capture of Srebrenica emerged over the following weeks.On 12 August 1995 the UN announced an investigation into reports up to 2,700 Muslim men had been shot dead with machine-guns and buried in mass graves. US aerial photographs appeared to show evidence of mass graves close to Srebrenica.

Refugee accounts claimed General Ratko Mladic, the Bosnian Serb commander, addressed the Muslim captives and warned that 1,000 refugees would be killed for every Serb who died.

General Mladic was later indicted by the War Crimes Tribunal for genocide but is still at large. One senior Bosnian Serb, General Radislav Krstic, has been jailed for genocide for his part in the Srebrenica tragedy.

It is now thought that between 7,000 and 8,000 Muslim men were killed by Serb soldiers following the fall of Srebrenica.

The massacre is regarded as the worst atrocity in Europe since World War II.

There have been a number of investigations into the massacre. In 2002 the entire Dutch government resigned after an inquiry blamed officials for giving the poorly-armed troops an impossible task to defend the enclave.

Initial findings of a commission involving the Bosnian Serbs admitted for the first time in June 2004 that Serbs had taken part in the killings.

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History Channel

“This Day in History” 

1971

Nixon announces visit to communist China

nixon-mao_3

Chairman Mao Zedong met with US president Richard Nixon

During a live television and radio broadcast, President Richard Nixon stuns the nation by announcing that he will visit communist China the following year. The statement marked a dramatic turning point in U.S.-China relations, as well as a major shift in American foreign policy.

Nixon was not always so eager to reach out to China. Since the Communists came to power in China in 1949, Nixon had been one of the most vociferous critics of American efforts to establish diplomatic relations with the Chinese. His political reputation was built on being strongly anti-communist, and he was a major figure in the post-World War II Red Scare, during which the U.S. nixon-mao_2government launched massive investigations into possible communist subversion in America.

By 1971, a number of factors pushed Nixon to reverse his stance on China. First and foremost was the Vietnam War. Two years after promising the American people “peace with honor,” Nixon was as entrenched in Vietnam as ever. His national security advisor, Henry Kissinger, saw a way out: Since China’s break with the Soviet Union in the mid-1960s, the Chinese were desperate for new allies and trade partners. Kissinger aimed to use the promise of closer relations and increased trade possibilities with China as a way to put increased pressure on North Vietnam–a Chinese ally–to reach an acceptable peace settlement. Also, more importantly in the long run, Kissinger thought the Chinese might become a powerful ally against the Soviet Union, America’s Cold War enemy. Kissinger called such foreign policy ‘realpolitik,’ or politics that favored dealing with other powerful nations in a practical manner rather than on the basis of political doctrine or ethics.

Nixon undertook his historic “journey for peace” in 1972, beginning a long and gradual process of normalizing relations between the People’s Republic of China and the United States. Though this move helped revive Nixon’s sagging popularity, and contributed to his win in the 1972 election, it did not produce the short-term results for which Kissinger had hoped. The Chinese seemed to have little influence on North Vietnam’s negotiating stance, and the Vietnam War continued to drag on until U.S. withdrawal in 1973. Further, the budding U.S.-China alliance had no measurable impact on U.S.-Soviet relations. But, Nixon’s visit did prove to be a watershed moment in American foreign policy–it paved the way for future U.S. presidents to apply the principle of realpolitik to their own international dealings.

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Images from Today’s History

 

Associated Press

 

History Channel

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo

 Efemérides:

15 DE JULIO

1099 En la actual Israel dentro de la Primera Cruzada los europeos conquistan Jerusalén y forman el Reino de Jerusalén (entre 1099 y 1187). A lo largo de los siguientes 2 días la población musulmana de la ciudad será masacrada. Los judíos son quemados vivos en la Gran Sinagoga, donde se habían refugiado.
1738 En Madrid (España) se funda la Real Academia de Medicina.
1799 En Egipto se descubre la Piedra de Rosetta, que permitirá descifrar los jeroglíficos egipcios.
1815 Los británicos encarcelan y destierran a Napoleón Bonaparte a la isla de Santa Helena en el Atlántico Sur.
1835 En la Primera Guerra Carlista se produce la batalla de Mendigorría, de la que salen victoriosos los liberales o cristinos.
1864 Alfred Nobel patenta la nitroglicerina como explosivo. (imagen izq)
1898 En la isla de Cuba —en el marco de la Guerra Hispano-Estadounidense— capitula la ciudad de Santiago.
1914 En Panamá se inaugura el edificio de la Administración del Canal.
1916 En Seattle (Estados Unidos), William Edmund Boeing funda la compañía aeronáutica que lleva su nombre: Boeing, la fundación se hizo con el socio George Conrad Westervelt, un ingeniero naval estadounidense, y fue denominada por entonces “B&W” empleando sus iniciales. Los inicios se hicieron en Red Barn.
1918 Segunda Batalla del Marne, en la Primera Guerra Mundial. (imagen dch)
1922 Partido Comunista Japonés es fundado.
1953 En Argentina, grupos peronistas incendian la Casa del Pueblo (del movimiento obrero ilustrado, anarquista), con la biblioteca de temas sociales más grande de Sudamérica.
1954 El prototipo del avión de pasajeros Boeing 707 realiza su primer vuelo.
1957 Se funda la Organización Internacional Nueva Acrópolis, entidad sin ánimo de lucro, de filosofía, cultura y voluntariado.
1963 Se comercializa en Argentina el primer Ford Falcon construido en el país. (imagen izq)
1977 En Buenos Aires (Argentina), la dictadura de Videla secuestra al físico nuclear Daniel Rus junto con sus colegas Gerardo Strejilevich y Nélida Barroca en la puerta de la CNEA (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica). Serán «desaparecidos», torturados y asesinados.
1982 En España se firma el Estatuto de Autonomía de la Comunidad Valenciana.
1983 Nintendo lanza la consola Famicom en Japon. (imagen dch)
2000 Filipinas, en la provincia de Davao del Sur , el municipio de Digos se convierte en ciudad (Charter of the City of Digos).
2004 EE. UU. lanza el satélite de observación terrestre Aura.
2007 En Venezuela, termina la Copa América. Brasil le gana 3 a 0 a Argentina.
2009 Un avión Tupolev de la compañía Caspian Airlines se estrella con 153 pasajeros y 15 tripulantes cuando se dirigía desde Teherán (Irán) a Ereván (Armenia). (imagen izq)
2010 En Argentina se aprueba el proyecto de ley que permite el Matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo y la adopción por parte de los mismos. Argentina es el primer país latinoamericano en implementarlo y el décimo a nivel mundial.
2011 Estreno mundial de Harry Potter y las reliquias de la muerte (parte 2) la última película de la saga de cinematográfica Harry Potter. (imagen dch)

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 Hispanópolis:

Julio 15 en la Historia del Mundo …
2009 El vuelo 7908 de Caspian Airlines, un vuelo comercial entre Teherán y Ereván (Armenia) se estrella en el norte de Irán con 168 personas a bordo.
2008 Se celebra la XXIII Jornada Mundial de la Juventud en Sídney (Australia).
2006 Día de Firefox
1982 España: Estatuto de Autonomía de la Comunidad Valenciana.
1953 Argentina: Grupos peronistas incendian la Casa del Pueblo (del movimiento obrero ilustrado, anarquista), con la biblioteca de temas sociales más grande de Sudamérica.
1918 Segunda Batalla del Marne, en la Primera Guerra Mundial
1916 EE.UU.: William Edmund Boeing funda en Seattle la compañía aeronáutica que lleva su nombre: Boeing, la fundación se hizo con el socio George Conrad Westervelt, un ingeniero naval americano, y fue denominada por entonces “B&W” empleando sus iniciales. Los inicios se hicieron en Red Barn.
1898 Cuba: capitula Santiago de Cuba en la Guerra Hispano-Americana.
1099 Israel: conquista de Jerusalén por la Primera Cruzada.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 15 …
1992 Koharu Kusumi, cantante japonesa (Morning Musume).
1978 José Antonio Delgado, cantautor español.
1977 Ray Toro, guitarrista estadounidense (My Chemical Romance).
1973 John Dolmayan, baterista libanés (System of a Down)
1967 Adam Savage, conductor de televisión (Cazadores de mitos).
1961 Forest Whitaker, actor y director de cine estadounidense.
1961 Roberto Wong, dibujante y escultor cubano.
1956 Ian Curtis, vocalista británico (Joy Division).
1956 Joe Satriani, guitarrista estadounidense.
1955 Carlos Iglesias, actor y director español.
1954 Mario Alberto Kempes, futbolista argentino.
1952 Terry O’Quinn, actor estadounidense.
1932 José Antonio Echevarría, líder estudiantil cubano
1915 Jaques Derrida, filósofo francés.
1906 Enrique Laguerre, escritor puertorriqueño.
1901 Nicola Abbagnano, filósofo italiano.
1879 Alcides Arguedas, escritor, político e historiador boliviano.
1870 Vladimir Nabokov, escritor ruso.
1848 Vilfredo Pareto, economista y sociólogo italiano.
1815 Enrique Gil y Carrasco, escritor romántico español.
1606 Rembrandt, pintor holandés.
1573 Íñigo Jones, arquitecto inglés y pionero en el estudio de la cultura megalítica
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 15 …
2009 Brian Goodwin, matemático y biólogo canadiense (n. 1931).
2009 Elvira Travesí, actriz peruana de origen argentino (n. 1919).
2009 Natalia Estemirova, periodista y activista rusa (n. 1959).
2003 Roberto Bolaño, escritor chileno.
1997 Gianni Versace, diseñador italiano.
1979 Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, presidente mexicano (1964 – 1970).
1974 Christine Chubbuck, periodista estadounidense.
1971 Bill Thompson, actor.
1970 Luis Mariano, cantante y actor español.
1964 Luis Batlle Berres, político y Presidente de Uruguay.
1919 Hermann Emil Fischer, químico alemán, premio Nobel de Química en 1902.
1904 Antón Chéjov, dramaturgo ruso.
1885 Rosalía de Castro, escritora gallega.
1291 Rodolfo I, monarca alemán.
0518 Anastasio I, emperador bizantino.
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History Channel

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1971 Nixon announces visit to communist China
  • American Revolution

  • 1789 Lafayette selected colonel-general of the National Guard of Paris
  • Automotive

  • 1903 Ford Motor Company takes its first order
  • Civil War

  • 1862 CSS Arkansas attacks Union ships
  • Cold War

  • 1971 Nixon announces trip to China
  • Crime

  • 1953 A notorious English killer is executed
  • 2002 John Walker Lindh accepts plea bargain
  • Disaster

  • 1888 Volcano buries victims in fiery mud
  • General Interest

  • 1606 Rembrandt born
  • 1806 Pike expedition sets out
  • 1965 Mariner 4 studies Martian surface
  • 1997 Versace murdered in Cunanan killing spree
  • Hollywood

  • 1988 Die Hard debuts, makes Bruce Willis a movie star
  • Literary

  • 1919 Iris Murdoch is born
  • Music

  • 1986 Columbia Records drops country legend Johnny Cash after 26 years
  • Old West

  • 1904 The Mad Trapper of Rat River heads for U.S.
  • Presidential

  • 1979 Jimmy Carter speaks about a national “crisis in confidence”
  • Sports

  • 2003 Tex Schramm dies
  • Vietnam War

  • 1964 Goldwater nominated for president
  • 1971 Nixon announces a visit to China
  • World War I

  • 1918 Second Battle of the Marne begins with final German offensive
  • World War II

  • 1941 Garbo makes an appearance
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Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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Confrontando la información, - el pasado y el presente...
"Estudia el pasado si quieres pronosticar el futuro" (Confucio)
“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)