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Julio 12 en la Historia

Julius Caesar born; Yeltsin resignation splits Soviet Communists; Ferraro named vice presidential candidate;  Comedian Bill Cosby born.

Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 12

en la Historia,

Today in History,


BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


Yeltsin resignation splits Soviet Communists

Boris Yeltsin and Mikhail Gorbachev

Boris Yeltsin was at the centre of Communist Party politics

The populist politician and president of the Russian parliament, Boris Yeltsin, has resigned from the Soviet Communist Party.The resignation has also led to a declaration from the small but influential radical reform group Democratic Platform that they would also break away.

The split leaves Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev with a party in tatters.

It was thought that Mr Gorbachev had appeased the reformers by ensuring the defeat of hardline conservative Yegor Ligachev in the race for the deputy leadership yesterday.

His favoured candidate, the pro-reform Vladimir Ivashko, was elected instead.

Dramatic speech

But it was not enough. Within hours of another vote to approve new party rules which still restrict factions operating within it, Mr Yeltsin stood up to address a hushed auditorium.

“In view of my great responsibility towards the people of Russia and in connection with the move towards a multi-party system I cannot fulfil only the instructions of the party,” he said.

“As the highest elected figure in the republic, I have to bow to the will of all the people.”

He then turned and left the chamber without another word.

Some delegates shouted “Shame”, while a few clapped.

Mr Gorbachev, clearly expecting the move, was heard to say, “That ends the process logically,” before instructing delegates to withdraw Mr Yeltsin’s congress mandate.

The departure of a group of Democratic Platform delegates less than an hour later confirmed the split – the first since the Bolshevik-Menshevik divide which put Lenin in power in 1903.

Among those leaving are the popular new mayor of Leningrad, Anatoly Sobchak, and the mayor of Moscow, Gavriil Popov.


Mr Yeltsin has been a figurehead for radical reform of the party system for the last 18 months, and has been a trenchant critic of President Gorbachev for not going far enough with party reforms.

Despite that, he has remained at the centre of the Communist Party structure. His name was put forward for inclusion in the new Central Committee to be chosen this evening.

His real strength lies in his popular support among ordinary Russian people.

In an opinion poll carried out by the Moscow News newspaper earlier this month he scored an 84% popularity rating, making him by far the most trusted figure on the Soviet political scene.

In Context

Days later, tens of thousands of demonstrators gathered beside the walls of the Kremlin to voice their opposition to the Soviet Communist Party.In August 1991, the rivalry between reformist and conservative elements of the congress erupted in an attempted coup against Mikhail Gorbachev.

Boris Yeltsin became a national hero after he mounted a tank to rally the people against the coup.

After the formal collapse of the Soviet Union later in 1991, Boris Yeltsin, who was already president of Russia, found himself at the head of a world superpower.

His presidency was marked by rapid economic and political reform.

He took on the remnants of Soviet conservatism again in 1993, in an armed clash in which the Parliament building was shelled and 100 people died.

He went on to win the first post-Soviet presidential election in 1996, despite plummeting popularity ratings.

In the same year, he underwent major heart surgery, and there were serious concerns about the state of his health.

Amid growing criticism of his erratic behaviour, including several embarrassing gaffes on the international stage, Yeltsin stood down from the presidency on 1 January 2000.

His chosen successor, Vladimir Putin, won the next election a few months later.


History Channel

“This Day in History” 

Julius Caesar

Et tu, Brute? But before his state-sanctioned murder, the statesman, general and dictator had conquered half the known world and still found time for a dalliance with Cleopatra.

Julius Caesar was born in 100BC in Rome to a well known, but not rich family. The young Caesar left Rome for military service in Asia and Cilicia. When the dictator Sulla died, he returned, and began his political career as a prosecuting advocate.

He travelled to Rhodes for philosophical studies and, on the way, was kidnapped by pirates. He convinced his captors to raise his ransom, then organised a naval force, captured the pirates and put them to death.

He held a number of government positions under Pompey, and was elected consul in 60 BC. In 59 BC he also became governor of Gaul and Spain. In 55 BC he attempted an invasion of Britain. Three years later, in 52 BC, he defeated a union of Gauls.

After defeating his former ally, Pompey, Caesar went on to Egypt, where he involved himself in upholding the rule of Cleopatra, with whom he had a son Caeserion.

He was made dictator for life in 45 BC and was called Father of his Country (Pater Patriae). The month of Quintilis was re-named in his honour, and continues to be known as July. He was also the author of a large body of important political writings.

However, his apparent arrogance and ambition brought him great unpopularity and the suspicion of his peers. He made a number of political reforms, which served to give him more power and alienate his fellow senators. In 46 BC, he gave himself the title of ‘Prefect of Morals’, which meant he could hold censorial powers without being subjected to them himself.

Caesar used this power to fill the senate with his own partisans, while setting the precedent of requiring the senate to bestow honours and titles upon him. Coins also bore the likeness of Caesar while he was given the right to speak first at assembly meetings. He also increased the number of magistrates and senators who could sit in the Senate. He also tried to transform Italy into a province.

Caesar was assassinated in the Roman Senate on the Ides of March (15 March) of 44 BC by a group of conspirators (including his adopted son, Brutus) who wanted to save Rome from his alleged monarchical ambitions. His famous last words were immortalised by Shakespeare as “You too, Brutus?”.

A bitter power struggle broke out after his death, which led to the end of the Roman Republic. Caesar had been popular with the middle and lower classes, who became angry that he had been killed by a small number of aristocrats. They turned into a mob at Caesar’s funeral and attacked the homes of Brutus and Cassius.

Caesar’s heir Gaius Octavian, who was his great-grand nephew, played on this discontent and raised an army to fight the troops gathered by Brutus and Cassius.

The 18-year-old initially worked with Marc Antony to defeat this army. He then had to fight Antony who had teamed up with Cleopatra to make Egypt a base from which to take over Rome. They were defeated and Octavian became the first Roman emperor, taking the name Augustus.

On 1 January 42 BC, Caesar became the first historical Roman to be deified, being granted the title ‘the divine Julius’ posthumously by the Senate.



Ferraro named vice presidential candidate

Resultado de imagen de Geraldine Ferraro

Walter Mondale, the leading Democratic presidential candidate, announces that he has chosen Representative Geraldine Ferraro of New York as his running mate. Ferraro, a daughter of Italian immigrants, had previously gained notoriety as a vocal advocate of women’s rights in Congress.

Four days after Ferraro was named vice presidential candidate, Governor Mario Cuomo of New York opened the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco with an impassioned retort to Republican President Ronald Reagan’s contention that the United States was a “shining city on a hill.” Citing widespread poverty and racial strife, Cuomo derided President Reagan as oblivious to the needs and problems of many of America’s citizens. His enthusiastic keynote address inaugurated a convention that saw Ferraro become the first woman nominated by a major party for the vice presidency. However, Mondale, the former U.S. vice president under Jimmy Carter, proved a lackluster choice for the Democratic presidential nominee.

On November 6, President Reagan and Vice President George Bush defeated the Mondale-Ferraro ticket in the greatest Republican landslide in U.S. history. The Republicans carried every state but Minnesota–Mondale’s home state.

Ferraro left Congress in 1985. In 1992 and 1998, she made unsuccessful bids for a U.S. Senate seat. During President Bill Clinton’s administration, she was a permanent member on the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.



Images from Today’s History


Associated Press


History Channel



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo



1191 Tercera Cruzada: el asedio de Saladino provoca la rendición de Felipe Augusto, acabando con un asedio de dos años a Acre.
1493 Hartmann Schedel publica la Crónica de Núremberg, uno de los primeros libros realizados por la imprenta.
1543 Enrique VIII de Inglaterra se casa con su sexta y última esposa Catalina Parr, en Hampton Court.
1553 En México, se imparte la primera cátedra de derecho en la Real y Pontificia Universidad de México.
1561 En Moscú se consagra la catedral de San Basilio.(IMAGEN DCH)
1562 En Maní (Yucatán), Diego de Landa ordena la incineración de numerosos códices, efigies y objetos sagrados de los mayas en un auto de fe.
1690 Batalla del Boyne – El ejército de Guillermo III de Orange derrota a los hombres de Jacobo II de Inglaterra.
1691 Batalla de Aughrim – Decisiva victoria de Guillermo III de Orange sobre las fuerzas inglesas en Irlanda.(IMAGEN IZQ)
1730 Lorenzo Corsini es elegido papa y toma el nombre de Clemente XII.
1789 El periodista revolucionario Camille Desmoulins hace un discurso en respuesta a la dimisión del ministro de finanzas Jacques Necker el día anterior. Este discurso animó al pueblo a coger las armas para comenzar la Toma de la Bastilla dos días después.
1790 La “Asamblea Constitucional” de Francia aprueba la “Constitución Civil del Clero”.
1799 Ranjit Singh conquista Lahore y se corona como Maharaja de Punjab (Reino sij).
1801 Guerras revolucionarias francesas: La Armada real británica inflige serios daños a los barcos españoles y franceses en la Seguna Batalla de Algeciras.
1806 Dieciséis estados abandonan el Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico para formar la Confederación del Rin. Entre ellos, Liechtenstein que obtiene la independencia.
1873 En Cartagena (España), un levantamiento federalista instaura el Cantón de Cartagena, que resistirá seis meses al asedio gubernamental.(IMAGEN DCH)
1892 En el Monte Blanco (Francia) se destapa un lago subterráneo formado por el glaciar Tête-Rousse y arrasa con la aldea Saint Gervais les Bains. Mueren 175 personas.
1904 En la ciudad de Buenos Aires se funda el barrio de La Paternal.
1913 En la provincia de Neuquén (Argentina) se funda la localidad de Zapala.
1913 Segunda Guerra de los Balcanes: Fuerzas serbias comienzan el asedio a la ciudad búlgara de Vidi.
1920 Rusia reconoce la independencia de Lituania. (IMAGEN IZQ)
1930 En Buenos Aires (Argentina), un tranvía cae desde el Puente Bosch al Riachuelo, dejando 56 muertos y solo 4 sobrevivientes.
1948 Guerra árabe-israelí: El prikmer Ministro israelí David Ben-Gurion ordena la expulsión de los palestinos de las ciudades de Lod y Ramala.
1958 En el atolón Bikini (islas Marshall, en medio del océano Pacífico), Estados Unidos detona su bomba atómica Poplar, de 9300 kt (la más potente de la operación Hardtack I). Es la bomba n.º 147 de las 1054 que Estados Unidos detonó entre 1945 y 1992.
1962 En el Marquee Club (Londres) toca por primera vez en público la banda The Rolling Stones.
1971 La Bandera de los aborígenes de Australia se iza por primera vez.
1975 Santo Tomé y Príncipe se independiza del Reino Unido.
1979 Kiribati se independiza del Reino Unido.
1985 La ciudad de Santiago de Compostela recibe el premio Europa concedido por el Consejo de Europa en reconocimiento a su europeísmo.
1986 Científicos llegan al lugar del naufragio del Titanic para explorarlo. (IMAGEN DCH)
1986 El grupo británico Queen daba unos de sus recitales en el estadio Wembley.
1998 La selección nacional de Francia se proclama campeona mundial de fútbol.
2001 Lanzamiento del satélite de comunicaciones experimental europeo Artemis.
2006 Incursión de Hezbollah en territorio israelí, capturando a los soldados Ehud Goldwasser y Eldad Regev y matando a otros ocho soldados israelíes, dando paso a la Segunda guerra de Líbano.



Julio 12 se celebra…
  • Irlanda del Norte, Belfast – Día de la marcha de los orangistas
Julio 12 en la Historia del Mundo …
1986 Científicos llegan al lugar del naufragio del Titanic para explorarlo.
1979 Kiribati obtiene la independencia.
1975 Independencia de Santo Tomé y Príncipe
1920 Rusia reconoce la independencia de Lituania.
1904 Se funda el barrio de La Paternal, en la ciudad de Buenos Aires.
1730 Lorenzo Corsini es elegido papa y toma el nombre de Clemente XII.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 12 …
1984 Gareth Gates, cantante británico.
1982 Antonio Cassano, futbolista italiano.
1973 Christian Vieri, futbolista italiano.
1970 Glenn Corneille, pianista holandés.
1967 Bruny Surin, atleta canadiense, medallista olímpico.
1967 John Petrucci, guitarrista estadounidense.
1966 Ana Torrent, actriz española.
1966 Oliver Vogt, diseñador alemán.
1962 Dolly Dollar, actriz alemana.
1960 Corynne Charby, cantante y actriz francesa.
1958 Jennifer Saunders, actriz y guionista británica.
1958 Michael Robinson, futbolista y comentarista deportivo británico.
1951 Cheryl Ladd, actriz y cantante estadounidense.
1951 Jaime Mayor Oreja, político español.
1950 Eric Carr, músico estadounidense Kiss.
1946 Jeff Christie, músico y cantante inglés.
1945 Hans Jochen Henke, político alemán.
1943 Christine McVie, música y cantautora británica.
1937 Bill Cosby, actor estadounidense.
1937 Lionel Jospin, político y primer ministro francés.
1935 Hans Tilkowski, futbolista y entrenador alemán.
1934 Peter Bulthaup, químico y filósofo alemán.
1934 Van Cliburn, músico estadounidense.
1928 Elias James Corey Jr., químico y profesor estadounidense.
1926 Carl Adam Petri, matemático e informático alemán.
1926 Oswald Mathias Ungers, arquitecto postmodernista alemán.
1923 Erwin Halletz, compositor, director y arreglista austríaco.
1923 Miguel Artola Gallego, historiador español.
1917 Andrew Wyeth, pintor norteamericano de estilo realista
1915 Otto Steinert, fotógrafo alemán.
1913 Willis E. Lamb, físico americano.
1904 Pablo Neruda, poeta chileno portador del premio Nobel de Literatura.
1904 René Lacoste, jugador de tenis y empresario francés.
1902 Günther Anders, filósofo y ensayista alemán.
1895 Buckminster Fuller, arquitecto, constructor, diseñador y escritor estadounidense.
1892 Harry Piel, actor y director alemán.
1892 Paula Grogger, escritora austríaca.
1890 Anton Kuh, periodista, ensayista y escritor austríaco.
1884 Amedeo Modigliani, pintor y escultor italiano.
1882 Tod Browning, director de cine estadounidense.
1873 Rudolf Nadolny, diplomático alemán.
1868 Stefan George, poeta y escritor alemán.
1866 Emiliano Figueroa Larraín, político chileno.
1864 Hans Chemin-Petit, compositor alemán.
1863 Paul Karl Ludwig Drude, físico alemán.
1861 Anton Stepanowitsch Arenski, compositor ruso.
1854 George Eastman, inventor estadounidense.
1852 Hipólito Yrigoyen presidente argentino (1916-1922 y 1928-1930).
1849 William Osler, médico canadiense.
1847 Karl Heinrich Barth, pianista y pedagogo alemán.
1840 Abraham Goldfaden, escritor ucraniano-judío.
1824 Eugène Boudin, pintor francés.
1821 Daniel Harvey Hill, general de los Estados Confederados de América.
1817 Henry David Thoreau, escritor y filósofo trascendentalista estadounidense.
1813 Claude Bernard, fisiólogo francés.
1803 Pierre Chanel, misionero francés, primer mártir en Oceanía.
1675 Evaristo Dall’Abaco, músico y compositor italiano.
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 12 …
1997 Miguel Ángel Blanco, asesinado por ETA.
1979 Minnie Riperton, cantante estadounidense.
1973 Lon Chaney Jr., actor estadounidense.
1951 Juan Alcaide, poeta español.
1945 Wolfram von Richthofen, General y Mariscal de Campo alemán durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1944 Theodore Roosevelt Jr., General estadounidense de la segunda guerra mundial, ganador de medalla de honor.
1935 Alfred Dreyfus, militar francés, célebre por el Caso Dreyfus.
1931 Nathan Söderblom, eclesiástico sueco, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1930.
1773 Johann Joachim Quantz, compositor y flautista alemán.
1536 Erasmo de Rotterdam, escritor y filósofo holandés.


History Channel

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1984 Ferraro named vice presidential candidate
  • American Revolution

  • 1780 The Battle of Huck’s Defeat
  • Automotive

  • 1933 First Dymaxion car produced
  • Civil War

  • 1861 Confederacy signs treaties with Native Americans
  • Cold War

  • 1990 Yeltsin resigns from Communist Party
  • Crime

  • 1963 The Moors Murderers begin their killing spree
  • Disaster

  • 1995 Heat wave hits Chicagoland
  • General Interest

  • 1862 Medal of Honor created
  • 1957 A new Aga Khan
  • Hollywood

  • 2008 Angelina Jolie gives birth to twins
  • Literary

  • 1389 Geoffrey Chaucer is named chief clerk by Richard II
  • Music

  • 1979 Disco is dealt death blow by fans of the Chicago White Sox
  • Old West

  • 1861 Wild Bill Hickok’s first gunfight
  • Presidential

  • 1957 Eisenhower takes first presidential ride in a helicopter
  • Sports

  • 1998 France beats Brazil to win FIFA World Cup
  • Vietnam War

  • 1965 First Marine wins Medal of Honor
  • 1966 North Vietnam urged to treat U.S. POWs better
  • World War I

  • 1915 Allied attack on Achi Baba
  • World War II

  • 1943 Russians halt German advance in a decisive battle at Kursk


Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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