Julio 11 en la Historia | bambinoides.com

Julio 11 en la Historia

World Population Day; America normalizes diplomatic ties with Vietnam; Aaron Burr mortally wounds Alexander Hamilton in a duel; Skylab tumbles back to Earth ; Babe Ruth’s major league debut; Laurence Olivier dies.


Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 11

en la Historia,

Today in History,

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”

1979:

Skylab tumbles back to Earth

Skylab I on launchpad

Skylab I was launched on 14 May 1973

The US space laboratory, Skylab I, plunged to Earth this evening scattering debris across the southern Indian Ocean and sparsely populated Western Australia.

All week there has been mounting speculation over where the spacecraft would come down. It has been in orbit six years – for the past five of those it has been unoccupied.

Skylab’s last signal was recorded at 1611 GMT. Less than an hour later a tracking station at Ascension Island in the South Atlantic confirmed the solar panels were beginning to peel off as the craft descended.

The 77.5 ton Skylab could break into as many as 500 pieces. The 5,100lb (2,310kg) airlock shroud and 3,900lb (1,767kg) lead safe, which protects film from radiation, are expected to survive the heat of re-entry into the earth’s atmosphere.

Head of the Nasa task force monitoring Skylab, Richard Smith, said they had already received reports of hot debris, which had lit up the night sky, from several points in Western Australia.

‘Edge of Cornwall’

Dozens of residents reported seeing debris falling near Kalgoorlie, 370 miles (595km) northeast of Perth.

Skylab was launched on 14 May 1973 and was lived in by three teams of astronauts for periods of up to 84 days as they tested human endurance over long periods of weightlessness.

While the astronauts were on board they were able to carry out many valuable scientific experiments including analysis of the sun’s activity and how it affected the Earth.

Skylab was abandoned by the last crew in February 1974, since when scientists have only had limited control over it. It was supposed to stay in orbit until the mid-1980s when the new shuttle would have come to its rescue.

A Skylab task force of computer specialists, engineers, lawyers and public relations experts has been on standby at various Nasa centres.

It has been very difficult to predict exactly where and when the craft would finally come down. Only two days ago, a Nasa spokesman had been predicting it would land near the “edge of Cornwall”.

In India, the police in all 22 states were put on full alert and the civil aviation department was planning to ban flights across the sub-continent during the crucial hours of re-entry.

Skylab’s final orbital path, its 34,981st, passed over the north Pacific, the north west tip of the United States, south central Canada, north of Montreal and Ottawa and the state of Maine.

In Context

After Skylab’s dramatic fall to earth, there was a frantic scramble to find bits of debris with cash prizes on offer.One golf course groundkeeper from Albany in Western Australia stumbled across a three-foot long, (0.9m) 2lb (0.9kg) chunk of twisted metal from Skylab.

The San Francisco Examiner offered £5,000 to the first person to deliver a piece of genuine debris to their office within 72 hours of splashdown. The Western Australian Government also put up a cash prize for space debris.

Most of the pieces were found on a strip of land about 100 miles (160km) wide between the Perth-Adelaide highway and the Indian Pacific railway line, which connects east and west Australia.

The demise of Skylab came at a low point in the American space programme coinciding, as it did, with the postponement in the flight schedule for the shuttle – which had been plagued with technical problems.

Since Skylab, mission controllers have brought down dozens of spacecraft and space stations but none as big, until the Russian space station, Mir, in 2001.

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History Channel

“This Day in History” 

1804

Burr slays Hamilton in duel

In a duel held in Weehawken, New Jersey, Vice President Aaron Burr fatally shoots his long-time political antagonist Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton, a leading Federalist and the chief architect of America’s political economy, died the following day.

Alexander Hamilton, born on the Caribbean island of Nevis, came to the American colonies in 1773 as a poor immigrant. (There is some controversy as to the year of his birth, but it was either 1755 or 1757.) In 1776, he joined the Continental Army in the American Revolution, and his relentless energy and remarkable intelligence brought him to the attention of General George Washington, who took him on as an aid. Ten years later, Hamilton served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and he led the fight to win ratification of the final document, which created the kind of strong, centralized government that he favored. In 1789, he was appointed the first secretary of the treasury by President Washington, and during the next six years he crafted a sophisticated monetary policy that saved the young U.S. government from collapse. With the emergence of political parties, Hamilton was regarded as a leader of the Federalists.

Aaron Burr, born into a prestigious New Jersey family in 1756, was also intellectually gifted, and he graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) at the age of 17. He joined the Continental Army in 1775 and distinguished himself during the Patriot attack on Quebec. A masterful politician, he was elected to the New State Assembly in 1783 and later served as state attorney. In 1790, he defeated Alexander Hamilton’s father-in-law in a race for the U.S. Senate.

Hamilton came to detest Burr, whom he regarded as a dangerous opportunist, and he often spoke ill of him. When Burr ran for the vice presidency in 1796 on Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican ticket (the forerunner of the Democratic Party), Hamilton launched a series of public attacks against Burr, stating, “I feel it is a religious duty to oppose his career.” John Adams won the presidency, and in 1797 Burr left the Senate and returned to the New York Assembly.

In 1800, Jefferson chose Burr again as his running mate. Burr aided the Democratic-Republican ticket by publishing a confidential document that Hamilton had written criticizing his fellow Federalist President John Adams. This caused a rift in the Federalists and helped Jefferson and Burr win the election with 73 electoral votes each.

Under the electoral procedure then prevailing, president and vice president were not voted for separately; the candidate who received the most votes was elected president, and the second in line, vice president. The vote then went to the House of Representatives. What at first seemed but an electoral technicality–handing Jefferson victory over his running mate–developed into a major constitutional crisis when Federalists in the lame-duck Congress threw their support behind Burr. After a remarkable 35 tie votes, a small group of Federalists changed sides and voted in Jefferson’s favor. Alexander Hamilton, who had supported Jefferson as the lesser of two evils, was instrumental in breaking the deadlock.

Burr became vice president, but Jefferson grew apart from him, and he did not support Burr’s renomination to a second term in 1804. That year, a faction of New York Federalists, who had found their fortunes drastically diminished after the ascendance of Jefferson, sought to enlist the disgruntled Burr into their party and elect him governor. Hamilton campaigned against Burr with great fervor, and Burr lost the Federalist nomination and then, running as an independent for governor, the election. In the campaign, Burr’s character was savagely attacked by Hamilton and others, and after the election he resolved to restore his reputation by challenging Hamilton to a duel, or an “affair of honor,” as they were known.

Affairs of honor were commonplace in America at the time, and the complex rules governing them usually led to an honorable resolution before any actual firing of weapons. In fact, the outspoken Hamilton had been involved in several affairs of honor in his life, and he had resolved most of them peaceably. No such recourse was found with Burr, however, and on July 11, 1804, the enemies met at 7 a.m. at the dueling grounds near Weehawken, New Jersey. It was the same spot where Hamilton’s son had died defending his father’s honor in 1801.

There are conflicting accounts of what happened next. According to Hamilton’s “second”–his assistant and witness in the duel–Hamilton decided the duel was morally wrong and deliberately fired into the air. Burr’s second claimed that Hamilton fired at Burr and missed. What happened next is agreed upon: Burr shot Hamilton in the stomach, and the bullet lodged next to his spine. Hamilton was taken back to New York, and he died the next afternoon.

Few affairs of honor actually resulted in deaths, and the nation was outraged by the killing of a man as eminent as Alexander Hamilton. Charged with murder in New York and New Jersey, Burr, still vice president, returned to Washington, D.C., where he finished his term immune from prosecution.

In 1805, Burr, thoroughly discredited, concocted a plot with James Wilkinson, commander-in-chief of the U.S. Army, to seize the Louisiana Territory and establish an independent empire, which Burr, presumably, would lead. He contacted the British government and unsuccessfully pleaded for assistance in the scheme. Later, when border trouble with Spanish Mexico heated up, Burr and Wilkinson conspired to seize territory in Spanish America for the same purpose.

In the fall of 1806, Burr led a group of well-armed colonists toward New Orleans, prompting an immediate U.S. investigation. General Wilkinson, in an effort to save himself, turned against Burr and sent dispatches to Washington accusing Burr of treason. In February 1807, Burr was arrested in Louisiana for treason and sent to Virginia to be tried in a U.S. court. In September, he was acquitted on a technicality. Nevertheless, public opinion condemned him as a traitor, and he fled to Europe. He later returned to private life in New York, the murder charges against him forgotten. He died in 1836.

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Día Mundial de la Población

world-population-day_2

world population_1

El Día Mundial de la Población es un evento anual que se lleva a cabo el 11 de julio, que busca tomar conciencia de las temáticas globales demográficas. El evento fue establecido por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) en 1989, en virtud de que alrededor de este día, pero dos años atrás, la Tierra alcanzó los cinco mil millones de habitantes

El Día Mundial de la Población es un evento anual que se lleva a cabo el 11 de julio, que busca tomar conciencia de las temáticas globales demográficas. El evento fue establecido por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) en 1989, en virtud de que alrededor de este día, pero dos años atrás, la Tierra alcanzó los cinco mil millones de habitantes. 
La población mundial ha pasado de los casi 1000 millones en el año 1800 a más de 6000 millones en el año 2000, y el 30 de octubre de 2011 se alcanzaron los 7000 millones. En junio del 2016 la población mundial alcanzó 7.4 billones de seres humanos la mayor parte de ellos habitantes del planeta en estado de pobreza.
La organización no gubernamental Oxfam señaló que el 1% más rico del mundo ya posee tanta riqueza como el resto de los habitantes del planeta. Y también destacó que las 62 personas más ricas del mundo tienen tanta riqueza como la mitad de la población mundial.

 

JULY 11, 1995

U.S. ESTABLISHES DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH VIETNAM

normalización_2

Two decades after the fall of Saigon, President Bill Clinton establishes full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, citing Vietnamese cooperation in accounting for the 2,238 Americans still listed as missing in the Vietnam War.Normalization with America’s old enemy began in early 1994, when President Clinton announced the lifting of the 19-year-old trade embargo against Vietnam. Despite the lifting of the embargo, high tariffs remained on Vietnamese exports pending the country’s qualification as a “most favored nation,” a U.S. trade status designation that Vietnam might earn after broadening its program of free-market reforms. In July 1995, Clinton established diplomatic relations. In making the decision, Clinton was advised by Republican Senator John McCain of Arizona, an ex-navy pilot who had spent five years as a prisoner of war in Hanoi during the Vietnam War. Brushing aside criticism of Clinton’s decision by some Republicans, McCain asserted that it was time for America to normalize relations with Vietnam.In May 1996, Clinton terminated the combat zone designation for Vietnam and nominated Florida Representative Douglas “Pete” Peterson to become the first ambassador to Vietnam since Graham Martin was airlifted out of the country by helicopter in late April 1975. Peterson himself had served as a U.S. Air Force captain during the Vietnam War and was held as a prisoner of war for six and a half years after his bomber was shot down near Hanoi in 1966. Confirmed by Congress in 1997, Ambassador Peterson presented his credentials to communist authorities in Hanoi, the Vietnamese capital, in May 1997. In November 2000, Peterson greeted Clinton in Hanoi in the first presidential visit to Vietnam since Richard Nixon’s 1969 trip to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

 

Images from Today’s History

 

Associated Press

 

History Channel

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo

 Efemérides:

11 DE JULIO

1302 Cerca de Courtrai, tuvo lugar la llamada Batalla de las espuelas de oro.
1792 Fundación de la ciudad de Manzanillo, Cuba.
1804 Aaron Burr hiere mortalmente en un duelo a pistola a Alexander Hamilton, político y escritor estadounidense, quien moriría al día siguiente.
1811 Italia: el científico italiano Amedeo Avogadro publica su ensayo sobre el contenido molecular de los gases.(IMAGEN DCH)
1893 Se da en Nicaragua la revolución liberal.
1893 José Santos Zelaya López se convierte en presidente de Nicaragua por la revolución liberal.
1907 Fundación del Firmat Football Club, de la ciudad de Firmat, Argentina.
1921 Argentina: fundación de la ciudad de Río Grande, en Tierra del Fuego.(IMAGEN IZQ)
1966 En Inglaterra se da inicio la IX Copa Mundial
1971 Chile: nacionalización de la gran minería del cobre, por Salvador Allende.
1975 Descubrimiento arqueológico en Xi’an, China, de los Guerreros de terracota.(IMAGEN DCH)
1978 Accidente del camping de Los Alfaques en el municipio de Alcanar, provincia de Tarragona.
1979 En Australia se estrella la estación espacial Skylab; cae a la Tierra de manera incontrolada.
1987 Según la ONU, hay cinco mil millones de personas en el mundo.
1991 Eclipse solar total.
1995 Matanza de Srebrenica. Las tropas serbias asesinan a más de 8.000 civiles bosnios, entre ellos ancianos y niños.
1997 En el mar Caribe, al sudeste de la isla de Cuba, mueren 44 personas al caer un avión Antonov AN-24 de Cubana de Aviación.(IMAGEN IZQ)
2002 En la Isla de Perejil (España) un grupo de gendarmes marroquíes invade territorio español. Este hecho empeoró notablemente las relaciones entre estos dos países.
2006 En Bombay (India) explotan siete bombas.
2006 Termina el soporte para Microsoft Windows 98.
2009 Día de la desaparición óptica de los anillos de Saturno (cada 15 años).
2010 Eclipse solar total que pudo ser visto en la Polinesia Francesa, en la Isla de Pascua y en América del Sur.
2010 La Selección Española de fútbol se proclama campeona del Mundial de fútbol de Sudáfrica.(IMAGEN DCH)
2010 Un fuerte sismo de 6,9 grados en la escala sismológica de Richter sacude la ciudad chilena de Calama, sin dejar daños ni víctimas.

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 Hispanópolis:

Julio 11 se celebra…
  • Día Mundial de la Población
Julio 11 en la Historia del Mundo …
2010 eclipse total de sol visible en el Océano Pacífico sur y parte de Sudamérica.
2009 Javier Velásquez Quesquén es investido como Presidente del Consejo de Ministros del Perú.
2006 Explotan siete bombas en Bombay en La India
2002 España: un grupo de gendarmes marroquíes invaden territorio español estableciéndose en la Isla Perejil. Este hecho empeoró enormemente las relaciones entre estos dos países.
1997 Cuba: mueren 44 personas al caer al mar Caribe un avión Antonov AN-24 de Cubana de Aviación, al sudeste de la isla.
1995 Matanza de Srebrenica. Las tropas serbias asesinan a más de 8.000 civiles bosnios, entre ellos ancianos y niños.
1991 Eclipse solar
1987 Según la ONU, hay cinco mil millones de personas en el mundo.
1979 La estación espacial Skylab cae a la Tierra de forma incontrolada, estrellándose sobre Australia.
1971 Chile: nacionalización de la gran minería del cobre, por Salvador Allende.
1811 Italia: el científico italiano Amedeo Avogadro publica su ensayo sobre el contenido molecular de los gases.
1804 Aaron Burr hiere mortalmente a Alexander Hamilton (político y escritor estadounidense) en un duelo a pistola, éste moriría al día siguiente.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 11 …
1976 Eduardo Nájera, jugador de baloncesto mexicano
1975 Rubén Baraja, futbolista español.
1959 Richie Sambora, guitarrista, compositor y cantante norteamericano.
1959 Suzanne Vega, cantante estadounidense.
1958 Hugo Sánchez, futbolista mexicano.
1934 Giorgio Armani, diseñador de moda italiano.
1926 Hugo Batalla, político uruguayo.
1914 Aníbal Troilo, tanguero argentino.
1913 Cordwainer Smith, escritor estadounidense de ciencia ficción.
1899 E. B. White, escritor estadounidense.
1884 Reveriano Soutullo, compositor de Zarzuelas español.
1873 Evaristo Valle, pintor español.
1832 Carlos Holguín Mallarino, Presidente de Colombia (1888- 1892).
1767 John Quincy Adams, 6º presidente de los EE.UU. (1825-1829)
1561 Luis de Góngora y Argote, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1274 Roberto I, rey de Escocia (1306-1329).
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 11 …
2008 Anatoli Ignatiévich Pristavkin, escritor ruso (n. 1931).
2008 Michael Ellis DeBakey, médico estadounidense (n. 1908).
2006 Oscar Moro, músico argentino
2000 Pedro Mir, poeta nacional dominicano.
1994 Gary Kildall, cientifico de la computación estadounidense, creador del sistema operativo CP/M.
1989 Laurence Olivier, actor británico.
1987 Avi Ran, futbolista israelí.
1974 Pär Fabien Lagerkvist, escritor sueco, Premio Nobel de literatura en 1951.
1937 George Gershwin, compositor de música estadounidense.
1936 Prudencia Ayala, escritora salvadoreña
1920 Eugenia de Montijo emperatriz consorte de Francia como esposa de Napoleón III.
1909 Simon Newcomb, astrónomo estadounidense.
1865 Felipe Arana, jurisconsulto y político argentino.
1768 José Nebra, compositor español.
1174 Amalarico I, rey de Jerusalén (1162-1174).
0155 Papa Pío I (142-155).
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History Channel

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1804 Burr slays Hamilton in duel
  • American Revolution

  • 1782 British evacuate Savannah, Georgia
  • Automotive

  • 1916 President Woodrow Wilson signs Federal Aid Road Act
  • Civil War

  • 1861 Union notches a victory at the Battle of Rich Mountain
  • Cold War

  • 1945 Soviets agree to hand over power in West Berlin
  • Crime

  • 2010 Barefoot Bandit is captured in the Bahamas
  • Disaster

  • 1978 Gas fire incinerates crowded campsite
  • General Interest

  • 1656 First Quaker colonists land at Boston
  • 1979 Skylab crashes to Earth
  • 1995 U.S. establishes diplomatic relations with Vietnam
  • Hollywood

  • 1922 Hollywood Bowl opens
  • Literary

  • 1899 “Charlotte’s Web” author E.B. White born
  • Music

  • 1960 The Hollwood Argyles’ “Alley Oop” leads a novelty-song outbreak
  • Old West

  • 1869 Tall Bull dies
  • Presidential

  • 1767 John Quincy Adams is born
  • Sports

  • 1914 Babe Ruth makes MLB debut
  • Vietnam War

  • 1966 Public opinion approves bombing of North Vietnam
  • 1967 Senators debate U.S. policy in Vietnam
  • 1969 Thieu challenges NLF to participate in free elections
  • World War I

  • 1918 German command makes final plans for renewed offensive on the Western Front
  • World War II

  • 1944 Hitler is paid a visit by his would-be assassin
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Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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Confrontando la información, - el pasado y el presente...
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“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)