Julio 06 en la Historia | bambinoides.com

Julio 06 en la Historia

Outbreak of the Biafran War; John Lennon and Paul McCartney meet for first time; Mars buggy starts exploring Red Planet; Baseball’s first All-Star Game; Painter Frida Kahlo born; Althea Gibson wins at Wimbledon; Singing cowboy Roy Rogers dies.


 

Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 06

en la Historia,

Today in History,

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BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”

1997:

Mars buggy starts exploring Red Planet

Sojourner rover

The tiny Sojourner rover was snagged on an airbag (picture: Nasa)

Nasa scientists have freed a robot from the space probe Mars Pathfinder, allowing it to begin its exploration of the Red Planet at last.The rover, known as Sojourner, has been stuck on Pathfinder since its successful landing on Mars two days ago.

It is the first time a man-made craft has travelled over the surface of another planet.

Pathfinder quickly sent back the evidence: an image of the Martian surface showing the tracks made by Sojourner’s six studded titanium wheels.

Cheering

The problem began when a partially-deflated airbag blocked Sojourner’s way out of Pathfinder. Then the computers on board the probe and the rover failed to talk to each other.

Finally, at 0646 BST (0546 GMT) there was a breakthrough.

Flight director Chris Salvo announced to the waiting team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California: “Six wheels on the ground.”

There was an ecstatic cheer from the 70-strong team. But they will now have to wait another day for the first high-resolution pictures because an hour after the vehicle moved off the ramp, the sun went down and the rover was left parked until the next Martian morning.

Uneven terrain

The Sojourner is a tiny robot, about the size of a bread-bin and weighing just 22 lbs (10 kg). It travels on six wheels, each of which can move independently to cope with the uneven Martian terrain.

Most of the power is provided by solar cells on the roof, and there is also a battery power pack for backup.

It is controlled remotely from California, millions of miles away.

The Pathfinder probe had a near-perfect landing on 4 July – America’s Independence Day – in the Ares Vallis, an ancient channel on Mars that may once have held water.

The first reading sent back was of the temperature – a freezing minus 93 degrees C.

The probe has also sent back some astounding pictures of the barren, rock-strewn surface.

It showed massive dust storms in the pink Martian sky, one raging just 600 miles (950 km) south of the landing site.

The mission is being followed avidly by millions on the internet through the official Mars Pathfinder website.

There is particular interest in what it may find following the controversial announcement by Nasa last August that it had found evidence of life in a Martian meteorite.

In Context

Although Sojourner was designed to operate for just one week, in fact it kept exploring Mars for nearly three months.It covered more than 50,000 square yards (42,000 square metres) of territory around Pathfinder’s landing site and sent back 550 images of the Martian surface. Pathfinder itself also took thousands of pictures.

They revealed new information about geological features on Mars and provided compelling evidence that the planet once contained liquid water and was warm and wet, like the Earth.

The Mars Global Surveyor, which arrived in September 1997, was also a success, providing tantalising hints of possible water beneath the surface.

However, the next missions, Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander in 1999, were costly failures, putting the future of Mars exploration in doubt.

Then in 2001, the Mars Odyssey revived Nasa’s fortunes with a remarkable geological map of the planet which transformed our knowledge of what Mars is made of.

The European Space Agency put the Mars Express into orbit around Mars in December 2003.

In 2004, Nasa’s Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, discovered compelling evidence for the prolonged presence of water on the planet’s surface.

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History Channel:

“This Day in History” 

1967

Civil war in Nigeria

Biafran-Children_2

biafra-mapFive weeks after its secession from Nigeria, the breakaway Republic of Biafra is attacked by Nigerian government forces.

biafra-war_1In 1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain. Six years later, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria’s oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu and other non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising several states of Nigeria.

After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out in July 1967. Ojukwu’s forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria’s superior military strength gradually reduced Biafran territory. The state lost its oil fields–its main source of revenue–and without the funds to import food, an estimated one million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. On January 11, 1970, Nigerian forces captured the provincial capital of Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Ojukwu was forced to flee to the Ivory Coast. Four days later, Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.

1933

Major League Baseball’s first All-Star Game is held

On July 6, 1933 – Major-League Baseball played its first All-Star Game at Comiskey Park in Chicago. The American League won 4-2

On this day in 1933, Major League Baseball’s first All-Star Game took place at Chicago’s Comiskey Park. The brainchild of a determined sports editor, the event was designed to bolster the sport and improve its reputation during the darkest years of the Great Depression. Originally billed as a one-time “Game of the Century,” it has now become a permanent and much-loved fixture of the baseball season.

Between 1930 and 1933, attendance at major league baseball games, which had skyrocketed during the 1920s, plummeted 40 percent, while the average player’s salary fell by 25 percent. Fans who could still afford tickets migrated from the more expensive box seats to the bleachers, which cost 50 cents. Owners of baseball teams across the country economized by shrinking their rosters, firing their coaches and slashing wages. Many teams also experimented with discounts and other innovations designed to woo back fans, including free admission for women, grocery giveaways and the first night games in baseball history.

Surprisingly, the most enduring promotional event to emerge during this period—the midseason All-Star Game between the American and National Leagues—was the brainchild of several people with no direct connection to baseball. In 1933, Chicago hosted a World’s Fair known as the Century of Progress International Exposition, an event devised to celebrate the city’s centennial while cultivating a sense of optimism during the depths of the Depression. Mayor Edward Kelly, newly elected and intent on making the fair a success, approached Colonel Robert McCormick, the powerful publisher of the Chicago Tribune, with the idea of holding a major athletic event in conjunction with it.

McCormick turned the matter over to his sports editor, Arch Ward, who proposed a one-time “Game of the Century” that would pit the finest players of the American and National Leagues against each other at Chicago’s Comiskey Park. As an added twist, fans would have the opportunity to vote on the lineup. Ward was so certain the game would be a hit that he told McCormick to take any losses out of Ward’s own paycheck. With his boss on board, Ward made his case to the presidents of both leagues and the various team owners, assuring the skeptics among them that the event would help pull baseball out of its slump. By donating all proceeds to a charity for retired players, he argued, they could show the country that Major League Baseball was not, as some had suggested, embracing a culture of “decadence” while ordinary Americans suffered financial ruin. Eventually, the persuasive editor’s lobbying won over the baseball commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, and the game was set for July 6, 1933.

As the date drew near, Ward wrote story after story in the Tribune, hyping the game and encouraging the public to participate. Ballots were printed in 55 newspapers across the country, and fans cast several hundred thousand votes for their favorite players, with Babe Ruth drawing 100,000. Along with the Bambino, fans elected the likes of Lefty Grove, Jimmy Foxx, Lou Gehrig, Al Simmons and Joe Cronin to the roster.

On July 6, 47,595 fans packed into Comiskey Park, where some of baseball’s most historic moments had taken place. This would be another. The game, which ended in a 4-2 victory by the American League, did not disappoint, thrilling the crowd with its star-studded roster, built-in drama and unprecedented matchups. Indeed, for many of the players, this was their first chance to meet and compete with their counterparts from the other league.

Arch Ward’s All-Star Game proved so popular that its organizers held another “midsummer classic” the following year. Since then, it has become an annual fixture of the baseball season, bringing together the sport’s most talented and beloved players every year with the exception of 1945, when it was cancelled due to wartime travel restrictions.

1957

Althea Gibson is first African American to win Wimbledon

Althea Gibson

On this day in 1957, Althea Gibson claims the women’s singles tennis title at Wimbledon and becomes the first African American to win a championship at London’s All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club.

Gibson was born on August 25, 1927, in Silver, South Carolina, and raised in the Harlem section of New York City. She began playing tennis as a teenager and went on to win the national black women’s championship twice. At a time when tennis was largely segregated, four-time U.S. Nationals winner Alice Marble advocated on Gibson’s behalf and the 5’11” player was invited to make her U.S. Open debut in 1950. In 1956, Gibson’s tennis career took off and she won the singles title at the French Open–the first African American to do so–as well as the doubles’ title there. In July 1957, Gibson won Wimbledon, defeating Darlene Hard, 6-3, 6-2. (In 1975, Arthur Ashe became the first African-American man to win the men’s singles title at Wimbledon, when he defeated Jimmy Connors.) In September 1957, she won the U.S. Open, and the Associated Press named her Female Athlete of the Year in 1957 and 1958. During the 1950s, Gibson won 56 singles and doubles titles, including 11 major titles.

After winning Wimbledon and the U.S. Open again in 1958, Gibson retired from amateur tennis. In 1960, she toured with the Harlem Globetrotters basketball team, playing exhibition tennis matches before their games. In 1964, Gibson joined the Ladies Professional Golf Association Tour, the first black woman to do so. The trailblazing athlete played pro golf until 1971, the same year in which she was voted into the National Lawn Tennis Association Hall of Fame.

After serving as New Jersey’s commissioner of athletics from 1975 to 1985, Althea Gibson died at age 76 from respiratory failure on September 28, 2003, at a hospital in East Orange, New Jersey.

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Images from Today’s History:

 

Associated Press

 

History Channel

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo

 Efemérides:

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 Hispanópolis:

Julio 6 se celebra…
  • Comoras – Día de Independencia
  • Malawi – Día de Independencia – Día de la República
Julio 6 en la Historia del Mundo …
2005 Singapur: La ciudad de Londres es designada por los miembros del COI como escenario de los Juegos Olímpicos del 2012, superando a las favoritas París y Madrid y a otras dos ciudades, Nueva York y Moscú.
1975 Comoras se independendiza de Francia.
1966 Malawi: se restaura la República.
1964 Malawi se independiza del Reino Unido.
1934 Se produce la Masacre de Ranquil, donde un levantamiento obrero en Chile es reprimido por la policía.
1923 Lenin es nombrado presidente de la URSS.
1878 Finaliza el primer periodo de Cesáreo Guillermo y Bastardo como presidente de la República Dominicana.
1864 Fundacion de Cruz Roja Española.
1809 Segundo día de la Batalla de Wagram, entre las fuerzas de Napoleón y el Imperio Austríaco.
1573 Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera funda la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina).
1339 El rey Alfonso IV de Aragón le da la baronía de Ayerbe a su esposa Dª. Leonor y ésta se la legó a su hijo D. Fernando.
0985 Almanzor entra en Barcelona tras asediarla durante ocho días.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 6 …
1980 Leandro Rivera, actor español.
1980 Pau Gasol, jugador de baloncesto, medalla de oro en el Mundobasket 2006.
1974 Zé Roberto, jugador de fútbol brasileño.
1958 Arnaldo Otegi, político vasco abertzale.
1948 Arnaldo Baptista, músico de la banda Os Mutantes.
1946 George W. Bush, presidente estadounidense.
1946 Sylvester Stallone, actor estadounidense.
1935 Tenzin Gyatso, 14º Dalai Lama tibetano.
1933 Antonio Díaz-Miguel, jugador y entrenador español de baloncesto.
1927 Janet Leigh, actriz estadounidense.
1923 Ernesto Mejía Sánchez, escritor nicaragüense.
1919 Ernst Haefliger, tenor suizo.
1914 José García Nieto, escritor español.
1907 Frida Kahlo, pintora mexicana.
1898 Hanns Eisler, compositor germano-austríaco de música clásica.
1878 Marmaduque Grove, militar, político y revolucionario chileno.
1877 Niceto Alcalá Zamora, primer Presidente de la Segunda República Española.
1876 Luis Emilio Recabarren, político chileno, fundador del Partido Comunista de Chile.
1859 Verner von Heidenstam, escritor sueco, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1916.
1840 José María Velasco, pintor paisajista mexicano.
1832 Maximiliano I de México, emperador de México. Originario de Austria
1818 Adolf Anderssen, ajedrecista alemán.
1766 Alexander Wilson, poeta, naturalista, ornitólogo e ilustrador estadounidense.
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 6 …
2009 Alfons Figueras, historietista español (n. 1922).
2009 Enrique Congrains, escritor peruano (n. 1932).
2009 Mathieu Montcourt, tenista francés (n. 1985).
2009 Robert McNamara, político estadounidense (n. 1916).
2008 Nonna Mordiukova, actriz de cine rusa (n. 1925).
2006 Kasey Rogers, actriz estadounidense (b. 1926)
2005 Claude Simon, escritor francés y Premio Nobel de Literatura en 1985.
2004 Thomas Klestil, presidente austríaco.
2002 John Frankenheimer, director de cine estadounidense.
1999 Joaquín Rodrigo, compositor español.
1998 Roy Rogers, actor estadounidense (n. 1911)
1982 Alma Reville, actriz británica, esposa de Alfred Hitchcock.
1982 Bob Johnson, beisbolista estadounidense
1973 Otto Klemperer, director de orquesta alemán.
1971 Louis Armstrong, músico de jazz estadounidense.
1959 George Grosz, pintor alemán
1914 Delmira Agustini, poetisa uruguaya.
1902 María Goretti, santa y mártir italiana.
1901 Príncipe Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, canciller alemán.
1893 Guy de Maupassant, escritor francés.
1854 Georg Simon Ohm, físico alemán.
1553 Eduardo VI, rey de Inglaterra.
1535 Tomás Moro, abogado, escritor, político y humanista inglés.
1415 John Huss, predicador reformista y pensador checo.
1189 Enrique I, rey inglés.
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History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1957 Althea Gibson is first African American to win Wimbledon
  • American Revolution

  • 1775 Congress issues a “Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms”
  • Automotive

  • 1958 Juan Manuel Fangio bids goodbye to Grand Prix racing in France
  • Civil War

  • 1864 Confederate General Jubal Early occupies Hagerstown
  • Cold War

  • 1963 U.S. policymakers express optimism
  • Crime

  • 1946 George “Bugs” Moran is arrested
  • Disaster

  • 1988 Explosion on North Sea oil rig
  • General Interest

  • 1942 Frank family takes refuge
  • 1944 The Hartford Circus Fire
  • 1967 Civil war in Nigeria
  • 1971 Satchmo dies
  • 1976 Women inducted into U.S. Naval Academy
  • Hollywood

  • 1994 Forrest Gump opens, wins Hanks a second Oscar
  • Literary

  • 1935 Dalai Lama, leader of Tibet and bestselling author, is born
  • Music

  • 1957 John meets Paul for the first time
  • Old West

  • 1862 Mark Twain begins reporting in Virginia City
  • Presidential

  • 1946 George Walker Bush is born
  • Sports

  • 1933 Major League Baseball’s first All-Star Game is held
  • 1957 Althea Gibson wins Wimbledon
  • Vietnam War

  • 1955 Diem says South Vietnam not bound by Geneva Agreements
  • 1964 Viet Cong attack Special Forces at Nam Dong
  • World War I

  • 1918 Czech troops take Russian port of Vladivostok for Allies
  • World War II

  • 1944 Georges Mandel, French patriot, is executed
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Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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(Media - Bambinoides)


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