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Julio 04 en la Historia

Britain celebrate end of rationing; U.S. declares independence; Former Presidents John Adams and Thomas Jefferson die on same day; Israel’s raid at Entebbe; West Point opens; Lou Gehrig’s farewell to baseball; Neil Simon born.

Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 04

en la Historia,

Today in History,


BBC’s In Context

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


Housewives celebrate end of rationing

Hands tear up ration book

British citizens are tearing up their rations books in celebration

Fourteen years of food rationing in Britain ended at midnight when restrictions on the sale and purchase of meat and bacon were lifted.Members of the London Housewives’ Association held a special ceremony in London’s Trafalgar Square to mark Derationing Day.

The Minister of Fuel and Power, Geoffrey Lloyd, burned a large replica of a ration book at an open meeting in his constituency.

But the Minister of Food, Major Gwilym Lloyd-George, told a meeting at Bebington in Cheshire he would keep his as a souvenir and praised all those traders and organisations that had co-operated with the rationing system.

For the first time since the war began in 1939 London’s Smithfield Market opened at midnight instead of 0600 and meat sellers were doing a roaring trade.

High prices

Although the final step in dismantling the whole wartime system of food distribution comes into effect, it’s not all good news.

Butchers are predicting meat prices will soar for the next couple of weeks until the effect of supply and demand cools the situation down.

In February the Ministry of Food stopped controlling the sale of pork and announced it would end all food rationing this summer.

Food rationing began on 8 January 1940, four months after the outbreak of war.

Limits were imposed on the sale of bacon, butter and sugar.

Then on 11 March 1940 all meat was rationed. Clothes coupons were introduced and a black market soon developed while queueing outside shops and bartering for extra food became a way of life.

There were allowances made for pregnant women who used special green ration books to get extra food rations, and breastfeeding mothers had extra milk.

Restrictions were gradually lifted three years after war had ended, starting with flour on 25 July 1948, followed by clothes on 15 March 1949.

On 19 May 1950 rationing ended for canned and dried fruit, chocolate biscuits, treacle, syrup, jellies and mincemeat.

Petrol rationing, imposed in 1939, ended in May 1950 followed by soap in September 1950.

Three years later sales of sugar were off ration and last May butter rationing ended.

In Context

Rationing was introduced because of difficulties importing food to Britain by boat during the war, to ensure everyone had their fair share and to prevent people stockpiling foodstuffs.Various essential and non-essential foods were rationed, such as clothes, furniture and fuel. Rationing of sweets and chocolate began on 26 July 1942.

During the war, health experts from the Ministry of Food ensured that the British people had a balanced diet.

Householders were told they were on the “Kitchen Front” and that they had a duty to use foods to their greatest advantage.

The Ministry devised characters such as Potato Pete and Dr Carrot to put their message across.

The process of de-rationing began in 1948, but made slow progress until 1953. Then Food Minister Gwilym Lloyd-George made it a priority for his department.


This Day in History

History Channel


U.S. declares independence


In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims the independence of the United States of America from Great Britain and its king. The declaration came 442 days after the first volleys of the American Revolution were fired at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts and marked an ideological expansion of the conflict that would eventually encourage France’s intervention on behalf of the Patriots.

us-revolution_5The first major American opposition to British policy came in 1765 after Parliament passed the Stamp Act, a taxation measure to raise revenues for a standing British army in America. Under the banner of “no taxation without representation,” colonists convened the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 to vocalize their opposition to the tax. With its enactment in November, most colonists called for a boycott of British goods, and some organized attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After months of protest in the colonies, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1766.

Most colonists continued to quietly accept British rule until Parliament’s enactment of the Tea Act in 1773, a bill designed to save the faltering East India Company by greatly lowering its tea tax and granting it a monopoly on the American tea trade. The low tax allowed the East India Company to undercut even tea smuggled into America by Dutch traders, and many colonists viewed the act as another example of taxation tyranny. In response, militant Patriots in Massachusetts organized the “Boston Tea Party,” which saw British tea valued at some 18,000 pounds dumped into Boston Harbor.

Parliament, outraged by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant acts of destruction of British property, enacted the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, in 1774. The Coercive Acts closed Boston to merchant shipping, established formal British military rule in Massachusetts, made British officials immune to criminal prosecution in America, and required colonists to quarter British troops. The colonists subsequently called the first Continental Congress to consider a united American resistance to the British.

With the other colonies watching intently, Massachusetts led the resistance to the British, forming a shadow revolutionary government and establishing militias to resist the increasing British military presence across the colony. In April 1775, Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, ordered British troops to march to Concord, Massachusetts, where a Patriot arsenal was us-revolution_2known to be located. On April 19, 1775, the British regulars encountered a group of American militiamen at Lexington, and the first shots of the American Revolution were fired.

Initially, both the Americans and the British saw the conflict as a kind of civil war within the British Empire: To King George III it was a colonial rebellion, and to the Americans it was a struggle for their rights as British citizens. However, Parliament remained unwilling to negotiate with the American rebels and instead purchased German mercenaries to help the British army crush the rebellion. In response to Britain’s continued opposition to reform, the Continental Congress began to pass measures abolishing British authority in the colonies.

In January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense, an influential political pamphlet that convincingly argued for American independence and sold more than 500,000 copies in a few months. In the spring of 1776, support for independence swept the colonies, the Continental Congress called for states to form their own governments, and a five-man committee was assigned to draft a declaration.

The Declaration of Independence was largely the work of Virginian Thomas Jefferson. In justifying American independence, Jefferson drew generously from the political philosophy of John Locke, an advocate of natural rights, and from the work of other English theorists. The first section features the famous lines, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” The second part presents a long list of grievances that provided the rationale for rebellion.

On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted to approve a Virginia motion calling for separation from Britain. The dramatic words of this resolution were added to the closing of the Declaration of Independence. Two days later, on July 4, the declaration was formally adopted by 12 colonies after minor revision. New York approved it on July 19. On August 2, the declaration was signed.

The American War for Independence would last for five more years. Yet to come were the Patriot triumphs at Saratoga, the bitter winter at Valley Forge, the intervention of the French, and the final victory at Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris with Britain, the United States formally became a free and independent nation.



Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Julio 4 se celebra…
  • Argentina: Día del médico rural, conmemorando el nacimiento de Esteban Laureano Maradona.
  • Estados Unidos: Día de la independencia.
Julio 4 en la Historia del Mundo …
2009 La Organización de Estados Americanos suspende a Honduras como Estado miembro a causa del golpe de Estado en ese país.
1997 España: Bimenes se convierte en el primer concejo en declarar la oficialidad de la lengua asturiana dentro de su territorio, originando una reacción en cadena entre varios municipios asturianos.
1997 La sonda espacial Mars Pathfinder de la NASA, toma contacto con la superficie de Marte.
1994 Ola de calor en España. Murcia registra 47,2º de temperatura máxima, la más alta registrada en las capitales de provincia españolas. Récord también en Alicante con 41,4º.
1991 Colombia: la nueva Constitución política de Colombia es expedida por la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente. Se le conoce como Constitución del 91.
1987 Francia: el anterior principal de la Gestapo, Klaus Barbie, (el “carnicero de Lyon”) es condenado por crímenes contra humanidad y se le condena al encarcelamiento de por vida.
1960 Hawaii ingresa en los Estados Unidos.
1946 Independencia de Filipinas.
1918 El sultán Mehmed VI del Imperio Otomano ascendió el trono.
1851 Inauguración del ferrocarril entre Copiapó y Caldera, Chile. Fue el primero de Chile y el segundo de Sudamérica.
1832 Adhesión de Provincia de Salta al Pacto Federal.
1811 Primer Congreso Nacional de Chile, presidido por Juan Antonio Ovalle.
1776 Una Declaración de la Independencia es aprobada por delegaciones de las 13 colonias británicas en el Congreso Continental en Filadelfia, Pensilvania. Las colonias darán origen a los Estados Unidos. Véase Historia de la Independencia de los Estados Unidos de América
1187 Saladino vence a los ejércitos cruzados, dirigidos por Guy de Lusignan, rey de Jerusalén, en la batalla de Hattin. Aniquilación del reino de Jerusalén.
1054 Los chinos, los aborígenes americanos, los japoneses y los árabes observan una supernova. Durante 22 meses permanece tan brillante que puede verse de día. Los restos formaran la nebulosa del Cangrejo.
0993 La Iglesia canoniza a Ulrico de Augsburgo.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 4 …
2008 Rayet de Jordania, princesa jordana.
1988 Alejandro Donoso, eminencia chilena
1988 Angélique Boyer, actriz francomexicana
1973 Ana María Orozco, actriz colombiana.
1973 Camui Gackt, cantante japones, ex-integrante de la banda visual kei Malice Mizer
1968 Henrietta Swan Leavitt, astrónoma estadounidense.
1967 Vinicio Castilla, beisbolista mexicano
1960 Roland Ratzenberger, piloto de Fórmula 1 austríaco.
1959 Victoria Abril, actriz española.
1952 Álvaro Uribe Vélez, presidente de Colombia (2002-2010).
1943 Alan “Blind Owl” Wilson, Cantante estadounidense (Canned Heat) (m. 1970)
1935 Manuel Summers, director de cine español.
1935 Narciso Ibáñez Serrador, director teatral español.
1932 Rubén Barrancos de la Vega, célebre boliviano.
1931 Stephen Boyd, actor británico.
1926 Alfredo Di Stéfano, futbolista argentino.
1924 Eva Marie Saint, actriz estadounidense.
1917 Manolete, torero español.
1907 Gordon Griffith, asistente de dirección, productor de cine y actor estadounidense.
1895 Esteban Laureano Maradona, médico, naturalista y filántropo argentino.
1883 Rube Goldberg, ilustrador e historietista estadounidense.
1882 Louis B. Mayer, productor de cine estadounidense de origen ruso, fundador de la Metro Goldwyn Mayer.
1872 Calvin Coolidge, presidente de los Estados Unidos.
1807 Giuseppe Garibaldi, patriota italiano.
1804 Nathaniel Hawthorne, escritor estadounidense.
1799 Óscar I, rey Suecia y de Noruega (1844-1859).
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 4 …
2009 Steve McNair, jugador de fútbol americano estadounidense (n. 1973).
2008 Thomas Michael Disch, escritor y poeta estadounidense (n. 1940).
2003 Barry White, músico estadounidense.
1995 Eva Gabor, actriz de origen húngaro.
1993 Alston Householder filósofo estadounidense.
1992 Ástor Piazzolla, bandeononista y compositor argentino, creador de la escuela del Nuevo Tango
1966 Félix Fernández, actor español.
1943 Wladyslaw Sikorski, militar y político polaco.
1938 Suzanne Lenglen, tenista francesa.
1934 Marie Curie, científica polaca, Premio Nobel de Química.
1925 Pier Giorgio Frassati, laico y montañista italiano.
1905 Elisée Reclus, geógrafo francés.
1850 William Kirby, entomólogo inglés.
1848 François-René de Chateaubriand, escritor y diplómático francés.
1838 El coronel José Antonio Vidaurre y sus cómplices, autores Motín de Quillota en Chile, son fusilados.
1831 James Monroe, presidente estadounidense.
1826 John Adams, presidente estadounidense
1826 Thomas Jefferson, presidente estadounidense.
1580 Santos de Aliseda, compositor español.
1541 Pedro de Alvarado, conquistador español del imperio azteca.
1187 Reinaldo de Châtillon, caballero francés, asesinado por Saladino


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1776 U.S. declares independence
  • American Revolution

  • 1776 American colonies declare independence
  • Automotive

  • 1957 Fiat unveils the “Nuova Cinquecento”
  • Civil War

  • 1863 Confederates surrender Vicksburg
  • Cold War

  • 1987 Soviets rock for peace
  • Crime

  • 1954 A sensationalized murder trial inspires The Fugitive
  • Disaster

  • 1911 Heat wave strikes Northeast
  • General Interest

  • 1826 Death of the founding fathers
  • 1997 Pathfinder lands on Mars
  • Hollywood

  • 1927 Playwright and screenwriter Neil Simon born
  • Literary

  • 1855 First edition of Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass is published
  • Music

  • 1976 The Clash play their first live gig
  • Old West

  • 1804 Lewis and Clark celebrate July 4
  • Presidential

  • 1826 Thomas Jefferson and John Adams die
  • Sports

  • 1919 Dempsey defeats Willard
  • Vietnam War

  • 1963 South Vietnamese officers plot coup
  • 1968 Thieu vows to wipe out corruption
  • World War I

  • 1917 U.S. troops march through Paris to Lafayette’s tomb
  • World War II

  • 1943 Polish general fighting for justice dies tragically



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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