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Julio 03 en la Historia

Algeria gains independence; Union forces win the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War; George Washington takes charge of the Continental Army;  US warship shoots down Iranian airliner; Actor Tom Cruise born; Singer Jim Morrison dies.

Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 03

en la Historia,

Today in History,


Algeria gains independence  from France



For more than a century, the Algerian people fought a permanent armed, moral, and political struggle against the invader and all its forms of oppression. This began after the aggression of 1830 against the Algerian State and the occupation of the country by the French colonialist forces. In the conflict the National Liberation Front called for the mobilization of all the energies of the nation, the process of struggle for independence having reached its final realization stage.

The war of extermination carried on by the French imperialism became more intensive, and more than a million martyrs died for the love of the homeland and liberty. In March 1962, the people came out victorious from a struggle that lasted seven and a half years, led by the National Liberation Front. Having recovered its sovereignty after 132 years of colonial domination under a feudal system, Algeria gave itself new national political institutions.

Faithful to the program adopted by the National Council of the Algerian Revolution in Tripoli, the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria moved its activities in the process of building of the country in conformity with the principles of socialism and the effective exercise of power by the people, of whom the fellahs, the working masses, and the revolutionary intellectuals constitute the ultramodern.

The Encyclopedia Britannica, Fifteenth Edition.
Copyright 1996
Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.
ISBN 0-85229-633-0


BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


US warship shoots down Iranian airliner

An American naval warship patrolling in the Persian Gulf has shot down an Iranian passenger jet after apparently mistaking it for an F-14 fighter.All those on board the airliner – almost 300 people – are believed dead.

The plane, an Airbus A300, was making a routine flight from Bandar Abbas, in Iran, to Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.

Will Rogers

The captain of the USS Vincennes, Will Rogers, mistook the airliner for an F-14

The USS Vincennes had tracked the plane electronically and warned it to keep away. When it did not the ship fired two surface-to-air missiles, at least one of which hit the airliner.

Navy officials said the Vincennes’ crew believed they were firing at an Iranian F14 jet fighter, although they had not confirmed this visually.

No survivors

The plane blew up six miles from the Vincennes, the wreckage falling in Iranian territorial waters.

Iranian ships and helicopters have been searching for survivors but none have so far been found. Iranian television broadcast scenes of bodies floating amid scattered debris.

Iran has reacted with outrage, accusing the United States of a “barbaric massacre” and vowed to “avenge the blood of our martyrs”.

President Reagan said the Vincennes had taken “a proper defensive action” and called the incident an “understandable accident”, although he said he regretted the loss of life.

‘Deep regret’

Admiral William J Crowe, Jr, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said at a Pentagon news conference that the US government deeply regretted the incident.

However, he said, the Airbus was four miles west of the usual commercial airline route and the pilot ignored repeated radio warnings from the Vincennes to change course.

Less than an hour before the shooting down of the passenger jet, he added, the Vincennes was engaged in a gun battle with three Iranian gunboats after a helicopter from the Vincennes was fired on.

The president promised a full investigation into how a passenger jet came to be mistaken for a fighter jet, which is two-thirds smaller.

US warships have been escorting Kuwaiti tankers in and out of the Persian Gulf since last July as part of its controversial undertaking to keep the Straits of Hormuz open during the eight-year-old Iran-Iraq War.

Pentagon officials acknowledged at the time that increased US military presence would risk provoking confrontations with Iran.

Last May the patrol frigate USS Stark was almost sunk by an Iraqi fighter-bomber, killing 37 sailors. Vigilance was tightened after the incident.

In Context

Most of those on board the Iranian Airbus were Iranians on their way to Mecca. The victims also included 66 children and 38 foreign nationals.An official inquiry carried out by the US attributed the mistake to human error.

However, the Iranian government has always disputed the American version of events.

It took four years for the US administration to admit officially that the USS Vincennes was in Iranian waters when the skirmish took place with the Iranian gunboats.

Subsequent investigations have accused the US military of waging a covert war against Iran in support of Iraq.

The US government has never admitted responsibility or apologised for the tragedy.

Some believe the Lockerbie bombing, carried out six months later in December 1988, was masterminded by Iranians in revenge for the Airbus tragedy, although a Libyan man was convicted and jailed in 2001.

In February 1996 the US agreed to pay Iran $61.8 million in compensation for the 248 Iranians killed, plus the cost of the aircraft and legal expenses.

It had already paid a further $40 million to the other countries whose nationals were killed.


This Day in History

History Channel


Battle of Gettysburg ends


On the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s last attempt at breaking the Union line ends in disastrous failure, bringing the most decisive battle of the American Civil War to an end.

In June 1863, following his masterful victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, General Lee launched his second invasion of the Union in less than a year. He led his 75,000-man Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac River, through Maryland, and into Pennsylvania, seeking to win a major battle on Northern soil that would further dispirit the Union war effort and induce Britain or France to intervene on the Confederacy’s behalf. The 90,000-strong Army of the Potomac pursued the Confederates into Maryland, but its commander, General Joseph Hooker, was still stinging from his defeat at Chancellorsville and seemed reluctant to chase Lee further. Meanwhile, the Confederates divided their forces and investigated various targets, such as Harrisburg, the Pennsylvania capital.

Gettysburg_1On June 28, President Abraham Lincoln replaced Hooker with General George Meade, and Lee learned of the presence of the Army of the Potomac in Maryland. Lee ordered his army to concentrate in the vicinity of the crossroads town of Gettysburg and prepare to meet the Federal army. At the same time, Meade sent ahead part of his force into Pennsylvania but intended to make a stand at Pipe Creek in Maryland.

On July 1, a Confederate division under General Henry Heth marched into Gettysburg hoping to seize supplies but finding instead three brigades of Union cavalry. Thus began the Battle of Gettysburg, and Lee and Meade ordered their massive armies to converge on the impromptu battle site. The Union cavalrymen defiantly held the field against overwhelming numbers until the arrival of Federal reinforcements. Later, the Confederates were reinforced, and by mid-afternoon some 19,000 Federals faced 24,000 Confederates. Lee arrived to the battlefield soon afterward and ordered a general advance that forced the Union line back to Cemetery Hill, just south of the town.

During the night, the rest of Meade’s force arrived, and by the morning Union General Winfield Hancock had formed a strong Union line. On July 2, against the Union left, General James Longstreet led the main Confederate attack, but it was not carried out until about 4 p.m., and the Federals had time to consolidate their positions. Thus began some of the heaviest fighting of the battle, and Union forces retained control of their strategic positions at heavy cost. After three hours, the battle ended, and the total number of dead at Gettysburg stood at 35,000.

On July 3, Lee, having failed on the right and the left, planned an assault on Meade’s center. A 15,000-man strong column under General George Pickett was organized, and Lee ordered a massive bombardment of the Union positions. The 10,000 Federals answered the Confederate artillery onslaught, and for more than an hour the guns raged in the heaviest cannonade of the Civil War. At 3 p.m., Pickett led his force into no-man’s-land and found that Lee’s bombardment had failed. As Pickett’s force attempted to cross the mile distance to Cemetery Ridge, Union artillery blew great holes in their lines. Meanwhile, Yankee infantry flanked the main body of “Pickett’s charge” and began cutting down the Confederates. Only a few hundred Virginians reached the Union line, and within minutes they all were dead, dying, or captured. In less than an hour, more than 7,000 Confederate troops had been killed or wounded.

Both armies, exhausted, held their positions until the night of July 4, when Lee withdrew. The Army of the Potomac was too weak to pursue the Confederates, and Lee led his army out of the North, never to invade it again. The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point in the Civil War, costing the Union 23,000 killed, wounded, or missing in action. The Confederates suffered some 25,000 casualties. On November 19, 1863, President Lincoln delivered his famous Gettysburg Address during the dedication of a new national cemetery at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg. The Civil War effectively ended with the surrender of General Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia in April 1865.



Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Julio 3 se celebra…
  • Día del locutor (en Argentina)
Julio 3 en la Historia del Mundo …
2006 España: 43 personas mueren en un accidente en el metro de Valencia y 150 pasajeros son evacuados.
2004 España: el secretario general del PSOE, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, es reelegido con el 95% de los delegados en el congreso federal de su partido.
1990 Bielorrusia se independiza de la Unión Soviética.
1976 España: Adolfo Suárez es nombrado presidente.
1898 España pierde Cuba tras ser derrotada en la bahía de Santiago la escuadra de seis barcos dirigida por el almirante Cervera. Murieron 323 españoles.
1866 El ejército prusiano derrota a los austríacos en la batalla de Sadowa, en el marco de la Guerra de las Siete Semanas.
1808 Napoleón Bonaparte cede los reinos de España e Indias a su hermano José.
1755 Guerra de la Independencia de los Estados Unidos: George Washington toma el mando de las tropas sublevadas contra Inglaterra.
1702 Guerra de Sucesión. Austria, partidaria del Archiduque Carlos, declara la guerra a Francia y España, partidarias de Felipe de Anjou.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 3 …
1979 Ludivine Sagnier, actriz francesa.
1966 Daniel Plaza, campeón olímpico de marcha español.
1964 Augusto J. Algueró, director musical, compositor español.
1962 Tom Cruise, actor estadounidense.
1960 Josu Erkoreka, político español.
1960 Vince Clarke, músico británico (Erasure).
1957 Laura Branigan, cantante estadounidense.
1942 Paco Stanley, mexicano conductor de televisión.
1937 Tom Stoppard, dramaturgo británico de origen checo.
1914 Antonio Colino López, miembro de la RAE.
1888 Ramón Gómez de la Serna, escritor español.
1883 Franz Kafka, escritor checo en lengua alemana.
1880 Carl Schuricht, director de orquesta alemán.
1854 Leoš Janácek, compositor checo.
1511 Giorgio Vasari, pintor, arquitecto e historiador del arte italiano.
1423 Luis XI, rey de Francia (1461-1483)
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 3 …
2009 Jorge Enrique Adoum, escritor ecuatoriano (n. 1926).
2006 Benjamin Hendrickson, actor estadounidense (n. 1950)
1995 Pancho Gonzales, tenista estadounidense.
1979 Louis Durey, compositor francés.
1971 Jim Morrison, cantante estadounidense (The Doors).
1969 Brian Jones, músico británico (The Rolling Stones).
1935 André Citroën, ingeniero francés, pionero de la industria automovilística.
1933 Hipólito Yrigoyen, presidente de Argentina (1916-1922 y 1928-1930).
1898 Fernando Villaamil, marino español.
0071 Tomás el Apóstol, la tradición católica dice que en esta fecha murió mártir.



History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1863 Battle of Gettysburg ends
  • American Revolution

  • 1775 Washington takes command of Continental Army
  • Automotive

  • 1985 “Back to the Future” released, features 1981 DeLorean DMC-12
  • Civil War

  • 1863 Pickett leads his infamous charge at Gettysburg
  • Cold War

  • 1957 Khrushchev consolidates his power
  • Crime

  • 1989 A mother is arrested and accused of killing her four children
  • Disaster

  • 1970 Charter jet crashes mysteriously
  • General Interest

  • 1775 Washington assumes command
  • 1988 U.S. warship downs Iranian passenger jet
  • Hollywood

  • 1962 Tom Cruise born
  • 2012 TV legend Andy Griffith dies
  • Literary

  • 1908 M.F.K. Fisher is born
  • Music

  • 1969 Brian Jones and Jim Morrison die, two years apart to the day
  • Old West

  • 1890 Idaho becomes 43rd state
  • Presidential

  • 1958 Eisenhower initiates federal flood-control program
  • Sports

  • 1974 Mike Marshall relieves Tommy John to pitch in 13th consecutive game
  • Vietnam War

  • 1968 U.S. command announces new high in casualties
  • World War I

  • 1918 Mohammed V, sultan of Turkey, dies
  • World War II

  • 1940 Operation Catapult is launched



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)