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Julio 02 en la Historia

Continental Congress votes to break away from Britain; Civil Rights Act signed; Amelia Earhart disappears; President James Garfield shot; Author Ernest Hemingway commits suicide; Actor Jimmy Stewart dies.

Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 02

en la Historia,

Today in History,


BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


President Johnson signs Civil Rights Bill

The Civil Rights Bill – one of the most important piece of legislation in American history – has become law.

President Lyndon B Johnson

President Johnson: “Let us close the springs of racial poison”

US President Lyndon B Johnson signed the bill creating equal rights in voting, education, public accommodations, union membership and in federally assisted programmes – regardless of race, colour, religion or national origin.

The bill has caused much controversy since it was introduced last year by President John F Kennedy.

It was signed tonight in the White House five hours after the House of Representatives passed it by 289 to 126 votes.

After the signing, President Johnson shook hands with civil rights leader Dr Martin Luther King.

In a television address to the nation he called on US citizens to “eliminate the last vestiges of injustice in America”.

“Let us close the springs of racial poison,” he said.

‘Monstrous oppression’

Parts of the bill take immediate effect, including the “public accommodations” element which means black people can no longer be excluded from restaurants, hotels, bars, cinemas, sports stadia and other public facilities.

Sections on voting rights and desegregation of schools are also enforceable from now and give the Attorney General more power to intervene where necessary.

The section on equal opportunity in employment will not begin to operate for another year and will not be fully effective for five years.

During the debate on the bill, segregationist politicians from America’s deep south expressed their disappointment and anger.

Congressman Howard Smith of Virginia called it a “monstrous oppression of the people”.

Civil rights activists have welcomed the new law. Roy Wilkins, secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People described it as “the Magna Carta of human rights”.

He applauded the appointment of former governor of Florida Leroy Collins as director of the new Community Relations Service, set up to deal with issues arising from the desegregation of public facilities and institutions.

The Civil Rights Commission has announced a campaign to implement the law.

And Dr King said he would be seeking commitments from businesses and community leaders all over the south to respect the new law under a campaign called Operation Dialogue.

In Context
Extra civil rights measures were introduced in the following years.The Voting Rights Act of 1965 aimed at removing the rights of states to introduce restrictions to stop certain people voting.

The 1968 Civil Rights Act outlaws discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.

Many states acted quickly to circumvent the law which led to a great feeling of injustice and resentment in the inner cities and the rest of the decade was marred by race riots and assassinations.

Black leader Malcolm X was shot in 1965 and Martin Luther King was killed in 1968.

The black ghetto riots between 1964 and 1968 marked the most prolonged period of unrest in the United States since the American Civil War. They were finally suppressed when tens of thousands of National Guardsmen were sent in to quell them.

Black people continued to remain at a disadvantage when looking for work, and programmes of “affirmative action” were introduced during the 1970s under President Nixon.

The Civil Rights Act of 1991 encouraged positive discrimation and allowed lawsuits against employers if their hiring had a “disparate impact” on women or minorities, even if there was no proof of discriminatory intent.





This Day in History

History Channel


Johnson signs Civil Rights Act



On this day in 1964, U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs into law the historic Civil Rights Act in a nationally televised ceremony at the White House.

racial-segregation_6In the landmark 1954 case Brown v. Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in schools was unconstitutional. The 10 years that followed saw great strides for the African-American civil rights movement, as non-violent demonstrations won thousands of supporters to the cause. Memorable landmarks in the struggle included the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955–sparked by the refusal of Alabama resident Rosa Parks to give up her seat on a city bus to a white woman–and Martin Luther King, Jr.’s famous “I have a dream” speech at a rally of hundreds of thousands in Washington, D.C., in 1963.

racial-segregation_5As the strength of the civil rights movement grew, John F. Kennedy made passage of a new civil rights bill one of the platforms of his successful 1960 presidential campaign. As Kennedy’s vice president, Johnson served as chairman of the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities. After Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, Johnson vowed to carry out his proposals for civil rights reform.

The Civil Rights Act fought tough opposition in the House and a lengthy, heated debate in the Senate before being approved in July 1964. For the signing of the historic legislation, Johnson invited hundreds of guests to a televised ceremony in the White House’s East Room. After using more than 75 pens to sign the bill, he gave them away as mementoes of the historic occasion, according to tradition. One of the first pens went to King, leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), who called it one of his most cherished possessions. Johnson gave two more to Senators Hubert Humphrey and Everett McKinley Dirksen, the Democratic and Republican managers of the bill in the Senate.

racial-segregation_3The most sweeping civil rights legislation passed by Congress since the post-Civil War Reconstruction era, the Civil Rights Act prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education and outlawed racial segregation in public places such as schools, buses, parks and swimming pools. In addition, the bill laid important groundwork for a number of other pieces of legislation–including the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which set strict rules for protecting the right of African Americans to vote–that have since been used to enforce equal rights for women as well as all minorities.




Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel

Ernest Hemingway commits suicide



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Julio 2 en la Historia del Mundo …
2008 La operación de rescate Jaque, llevada a cabo por las Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, consigue liberar a la ex candidata presidencial Íngrid Betancourt y a 14 personas más que estaban secuestradas por las FARC.
2006 Se celebran las elecciones Presidenciales de México, en las cuales los dos candidatos punteros se declaran ganadores. La elección seria impugnada en los tribunales.
2005 Se celebran nueve conciertos simultáneos en distintas ciudades del planeta (Live 8) para exigir el fin de la pobreza en el mundo.
2003 El COI, reunido en Praga, elige a Vancúver sede de los Juegos Olímpicos de Invierno de 2010.
2000 México: Vicente Fox se convierte en el primer candidato de oposición en la historia en derrotar al Partido Revolucionario Institucional en una elección presidencial.
1966 Francia realiza su primer ensayo atómico en el atolón de Mururoa
1916 Primer partido de fútbol por la futura Copa América entre las selecciones de Uruguay y Chile. Ganando Uruguay 6 a 0. Se realizó en Buenos Aires.
1900 Vuelo del primer dirigible en el Lago Constanza cerca de Friedrichshafen, Alemania.
1897 Guglielmo Marconi patenta la radio.
1644 Batalla de Marston Moor: derrota del ejército leal a Carlos I gracias a la intervención decisiva de Oliver Cromwell y su cuerpo de caballería, los “Ironsides”.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 2 …
1986 Lindsay Lohan, actriz estadounidense.
1985 Ashley Tisdale, actriz y cantante estadounidense.
1983 Michelle Branch, cantante estadounidense (The Wreckers).
1979 Sam Hornish Jr., piloto de automovilismo estadounidense.
1977 Enrique Fernando Ortíz Moruno, futbolista español.
1975 Erik Ohlsson, guitarrista sueco (Millencolin).
1974 Rocky Gray, baterista de Evanescence.
1970 Colin Edwin, músico australiano (Porcupine Tree).
1970 Scott Garland, luchador estadounidense.
1957 Bret “Hitman” Hart, luchador profesional canadiense.
1956 Jerry Hall, modelo y actriz
1953 Mark Hart, integrante de las bandas Crowded House y Supertramp.
1953 Tony Armas, beisbolista venezolano.
1950 Alejandro Ballesteros Pozos, locutor.
1949 Roy Bittan, co-fundador de E Street Band.
1946 Richard Axel, científico estadounidense, Premio Nobel en 2004.
1946 Ron Silver, actor estadounidense.
1942 Vicente Fox Quesada, presidente de México de 2000 a 2006.
1939 Alexandros Panagoulis, político y poeta griego.
1930 Carlos Saúl Menem, presidente de Argentina (1989-1999).
1929 Imelda Marcos, Primera Dama de Filipinas.
1925 Patrice Lumumba, Primer Ministro de la República Democrática del Congo.
1923 Wislawa Szymborska, poetisa polaca, Premio Nobel de Literatura en 1996.
1920 Fernando Ayala, cineasta argentino.
1916 Hans-Ulrich Rudel, piloto alemán.
1906 Hans Bethe, físico estadounidense, Premio Nobel en 1967.
1904 René Lacoste, tenista y empresario francés.
1903 Alec Douglas-Home, político británico.
1903 Olaf V, Rey de Noruega.
1896 Quirino Cristiani, caricaturista y director de animación argentino.
1877 Hermann Hesse escritor alemán.
1862 William Henry Bragg, físico inglés, premio Nobel de Física en 1915.
1850 Robert Ridgway, ornitólogo estadounidense.
1667 Pietro Ottoboni, cardenal y mecenas italiano.
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 2 …
2008 Simone Ortega Klein, autora de libros de cocina española (n. 1919).
1999 Mario Puzo, escritor estadounidense.
1997 James Stewart, actor estadounidense.
1994 Andrés Escobar, futbolista colombiano.
1992 Camarón de la Isla, músico y cantante flamenco.
1991 José María Rosa, historiador argentino.
1989 Andrei Gromiko, dirigente soviético.
1989 Franklin Schaffner, director de cine estadounidense.
1981 Mercedes Prendes, actriz española.
1977 Vladimir Nabokov, escritor ruso.
1961 Ernest Hemingway, escritor estadounidense.
1937 Amelia Earhart, aviadora estadounidense.
1915 Porfirio Díaz, político mexicano.
1843 Samuel Hahnemann, médico sajón, fundador de la medicina homeopática.
1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, escritor, compositor y filósofo suizo.
1566 Nostradamus, escritor profético francés.
1522 Antonio de Nebrija, humanista y gramático español.


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1964 Johnson signs Civil Rights Act
  • American Revolution

  • 1776 Congress votes for independence
  • Automotive

  • 1992 Chevrolet builds 1 millionth Corvette
  • Civil War

  • 1863 Fighting continues at the Battle of Gettysburg
  • Cold War

  • 1947 Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance
  • Crime

  • 1881 President Garfield shot
  • Disaster

  • 1990 Pilgrim stampede kills 1,400
  • General Interest

  • 1839 Mutiny on the Amistad slave ship
  • 1900 Zeppelin demonstrates airship
  • 1937 Amelia Earhart disappears
  • Hollywood

  • 1997 Men in Black premieres
  • Literary

  • 1992 Stephen Hawking breaks British bestseller records
  • Music

  • 1977 “Gonna Fly Now (Theme From ‘Rocky’)” is the #1 song on the U.S. pop charts
  • Old West

  • 1809 Chief Tecumseh urges Indians to unite against whites
  • Presidential

  • 1881 President Garfield is shot
  • Sports

  • 1938 Helen Wills Moody wins final Wimbledon
  • Vietnam War

  • 1964 Republican Congressional leaders attack Johnson’s policy
  • World War I

  • 1917 Greece declares war on Central Powers
  • World War II

  • 1944 American bombers deluge Budapest, in more ways than one



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)