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viernes 30 junio, 2017 19:45

Julio 01 en la Historia

Hong Kong returned to China; USA’s assault on San Juan Hill, Cuba; The first nuclear weapons test in peacetime;  The Civil War Battle of Gettysburg begins; Britain’s Princess Diana born;  Actor Marlon Brando dies.


Hoy en la Historia,

Julio 01

en la Historia,

Today in History,


BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”


Hong Kong handed over to Chinese control

Dignitaries sitting on platform, flags flying in front

The final handover ceremony at the Convention Centre

Hong Kong has been handed back to the Chinese authorities – ending more than 150 years of British control.

The British flag was lowered over Government House – home to the last Governor Chris Patten for the past five years – at midnight last night.

The flag was presented to Mr Patten who was then driven off in his official Rolls Royce, before the car was handed over to Tung Chee-hwa, the territory’s Chief Executive.

In his farewell speech, Mr Patten said: “The story of this great city is about the years before this night and the years of success that will surely follow it.”

Hong Kong returned to China_1

Britain has controlled Hong Kong island since 1842 – apart from a brief period during World War II when the Japanese took over.

A huge fireworks display lit up Victoria Harbour at 2000 local time. One hour later, 4,000 guests sat down to a banquet in the Convention Centre on the harbour front, while 509 Chinese troops crossed the land border into Hong Kong.

Among the guests for the final handover ceremony at the Convention Centre were Prince Charles, Prime Minister Tony Blair, Foreign Secretary Robin Cook and Chris Patten. Chinese dignitaries included President Jiang Zemin, Premier Li Peng, Foreign Minister Qian Qichen and military leader General Zhang Wannian.

Final farewell

In Beijing the ceremony was watched on giant screens erected in Tiananmen Square.

At the stroke of midnight, the red digits of the countdown clock turned to zero and the handpicked crowd roared its approval.

Shortly afterwards, Prince Charles and Mr Patten boarded the Royal Yacht Britannia and waved a final farewell to the strains of Rule Britannia and Land of Hope and Glory.

Just half an hour after the handover, there was a demonstration by the Hong Kong Democratic Party outside the Legislative Council building – but it did not delay the inauguration of the new Special Administrative Region government.

Tung Chee-hwa was sworn in as Hong Kong’s new leader.

“This is a momentous and historic day … Hong Kong and China are whole again,” said Mr Tung.

But he promised, “We value this empowerment and we will exercise our powers prudently and responsibly.”

In Context

Discussions between Britain and China on the future of Hong Kong began in 1982.After 22 rounds of formal talks, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her Chinese counterpart, Zhao Ziyang, signed the Joint Declaration in 1984.

In 1992, Chris Patten was sworn in as the last governor of Hong Kong with a remit to prepare for the colony’s democratic future under Chinese rule.

Democratic elections were held in 1995 for the new Legislative Council.

Proposals to introduce controversial new security laws in 2002 galvanised public opinion to a degree not seen since the handover.


This Day in History

History Channel

Battle of San Juan Hill

Part of the Spanish–American War
San Juan Hill by Kurz and Allison.JPG
Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry at San Juan Hill, July 1, 1898.
Date 1 July 1898
Location Near Santiago, Cuba
20.0209106°N 75.7961154°W
Result U. S./Cuban victory
 United States
Republic of Cuba
Kingdom of Spain
Commanders and leaders
William R. Shafter
Joseph Wheeler
Arsenio Linares y Pombo
8,412 Americans
~3,000 Cubans
Casualties and losses
144 or 2.000 according to Spanish sources killed in action, 951-1,024wounded and 72 missingAmericans  (Wikipedia facts)


The Battle of San Juan Hill

Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider_2

Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider_1

Theodore Roosevelt


As part of their campaign to capture Spanish-held Santiago de Cuba on the southern coast of Cuba, the U.S. Army Fifth Corps engages Spanish forces at El Caney and San Juan Hill.

In May 1898, one month after the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, a Spanish fleet docked in the Santiago de Cuba harbor after racing across the Atlantic from Spain. A superior U.S. naval force arrived soon after and blockaded the harbor entrance. In June, the U.S. Army Fifth Corps landed on Cuba with the aim of marching to Santiago and launching a coordinated land and sea assault on the Spanish stronghold. Included among the U.S. ground troops were the Theodore Roosevelt-led “Rough Riders,” a collection of Western cowboys and Eastern blue bloods officially known as the First U.S. Voluntary Cavalry.

Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider_3The U.S. Army Fifth Corps fought its way to Santiago’s outer defenses, and on July 1 U.S. General William Shafter ordered an attack on the village of El Caney and San Juan Hill. Shafter hoped to capture El Caney before besieging the fortified heights of San Juan Hill, but the 500 Spanish defenders of the village put up a fierce resistance and held off 10 times their number for most of the day. Although El Caney was not secure, some 8,000 Americans pressed forward toward San Juan Hill.

Hundreds fell under Spanish gunfire before reaching the base of the heights, where the force split up into two flanks to take San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill. The Rough Riders were among the troops in the right flank attacking Kettle Hill. When the order was given by Lieutenant John Miley that “the heights must be taken at all hazards,” the Rough Riders, who had been forced to leave their horses behind because of transportation difficulties, led the charge up the hills. The Rough Riders and the black soldiers of the 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments were the first up Kettle Hill, and San Juan Hill was taken soon after. From the crest, the Americans found themselves overlooking Santiago, and the next day they began a siege of the city.

On July 3, the Spanish fleet was destroyed off Santiago by U.S. warships under Admiral William Sampson, and on July 17 the Spanish surrendered the city–and thus Cuba–to the Americans.


The Battle of Gettysburg begins

The largest military conflict in North American history begins this day when Union and Confederate forces collide at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The epic battle lasted three days and resulted in a retreat to Virginia by Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.

Two months prior to Gettysburg, Lee had dealt a stunning defeat to the Army of the Potomac at Chancellorsville, Virginia. He then made plans for a Northern invasion in order to relieve pressure on war-weary Virginia and to seize the initiative from the Yankees. His army, numbering about 80,000, began moving on June 3. The Army of the Potomac, commanded by Joseph Hooker and numbering just under 100,000, began moving shortly thereafter, staying between Lee and Washington, D.C. But on June 28, frustrated by the Lincoln administration’s restrictions on his autonomy as commander, Hooker resigned and was replaced by George G. Meade.

Meade took command of the Army of the Potomac as Lee’s army moved into Pennsylvania. On the morning of July 1, advance units of the forces came into contact with one another just outside of Gettysburg. The sound of battle attracted other units, and by noon the conflict was raging. During the first hours of battle, Union General John Reynolds was killed, and the Yankees found that they were outnumbered. The battle lines ran around the northwestern rim of Gettysburg. The Confederates applied pressure all along the Union front, and they slowly drove the Yankees through the town.

By evening, the Federal troops rallied on high ground on the southeastern edge of Gettysburg. As more troops arrived, Meade’s army formed a three-mile long, fishhook-shaped line running from Culp’s Hill on the right flank, along Cemetery Hill and Cemetery Ridge, to the base of Little Round Top. The Confederates held Gettysburg, and stretched along a six-mile arc around the Union position. Lee’s forces would continue to batter each end of the Union position, before launching the infamous Pickett’s Charge against the Union center on July 3.


Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel

First U.S. peacetime atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

1 JULY 1946 – ‘TEST ABLE’,

Able’s cloud boiled up to a height of 11 kilometres.

On 1 July 1946, the United States conducted the first nuclear test after World War II. The explosion took place at the Bikini Atoll lagoon, situated in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Test Able was to be the first of a series of 67 tests in the atoll and the second U.S. nuclear test of over a thousand to follow.

The explosion of the fission bomb, largely identical to the weapon used in the attack on Nagasaki on 9 August 1945, occurred 158 metres above sea level and had a yield of 23 kilotons. The main aim was to test the effects of nuclear weapons on ships. To that end, a fleet of 78 vessels, many of which had been captured during World War II, was anchored in the lagoon. The blast sunk only five of them, leaving another 14 seriously damaged.

The target fleet of 78 ships.

The irradiation consequences, however, were largely underestimated. Marines were ordered to board the vessels shortly after the explosion to attempt to decontaminate the ships by scrubbing the decks, exposing them to high doses of radioactivity. After these efforts proved largely ineffective, many of the ships were subsequently abandoned and sunk in the Pacific Ocean.


57 animals were placed aboard the target ships (U.S. Archives).

Apart from experimenting with the naval array, the test was used to investigate the effect of nuclear explosions on living beings. Fifty-seven animals were placed on the targeted ships, of which roughly a third died directly from the blast or from lethal radiation doses. This triggered numerous protests in the United States – rallying public opinion against nuclear testing for the first time.



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:



Julio 1 en la Historia del Mundo …
2002 Accidente del Lago Constanza.
2002 Entra en vigencia el Estatuto de Roma que crea la Corte Penal Internacional.
1997 El Reino Unido traspasa el control de Hong Kong a China.
1997 La Guardia Civil encuentra al funcionario de prisiones en un zulo de Mondragón secuestrado por ETA durante 532 días.
1966 Se inaugura el Museo de Arte Abstracto Español en Cuenca
1962 Burundi y Ruanda alcanzan la independencia de Bélgica.
1960 Somalia alcanza la independencia de Italia y del Reino Unido.
1957 Incio del Año Geofísico Internacional.
1941 Se emite a las 13:29 horas el primer anuncio televisivo de la història en la cadena de Nueva York WNBT. El anunciante era la empresa de relojes Bulova y pago 9$ por un anuncio de 10 segundos. Se emitió en el descanso del partido de baseball que enfrentó a los Brooklyn Dodgers contra los Philadelphia Phillies.
1924 Kawasaki se convierte oficialmente en ciudad.
1924 Proclamación de la República Popular de Mongolia.
1924 Se desencadena una ola de violencia racial en los Estados Unidos Ku Klux Klan.
1916 Estados Unidos: Entra en vigor la denominada “Ley Seca” que prohíbe la venta de bebidas alchólicas.
1911 Se inaugura el Ferrocarril Midland de Buenos Aires, Puente Alsina – Carhué.
1874 Estados Unidos: Se abre el primer zoológico público en Filadelfia.
1874 Firma del 2º tratado de límites entre Bolivia y Chile que sustituye el previamente firmado de 1866. Chile renuncia a los territorios en la zona comprendida en los paralelos 24 y 25. A cambio el gobierno de Bolivia se compromete a no incrementar los impuestos sobre el salitre durante los próximos 25 años, es decir, hasta 1899.
1867 Independencia de Canadá del Reino Unido.
1861 Primera edición del L’Osservatore Romano
1823 El Congreso Constituyente de las Provincias Unidas del Centro de América aprueba un decreto que establece la independencia absoluta del territorio centroamericano
1807 Desembarco de las tropas inglesas en las inmediaciones de Buenos Aires
1751 Aparece en París el primer tomo de la Enciclopedia o diccionario razonado de las Ciencias, las Artes y los Oficios
1594 Se vende primer sello que circuló en Chile.
1547 La diócesis de Paraguay es creada por el papa Paulo III.
1520 La Noche Triste, Hernán Cortés y sus hombres son obligados a abandonar México tras la muerte de Moctezuma.
0612 Se aprueba la ley antisemita del rey Sisebuto en la Hispania visigoda.
Nacimientos Notables en Julio 1 …
1982 Hilarie Burton, actriz estadounidense.
1982 Joachim Johansson, tenista sueco.
1977 Liv Tyler, actriz estadounidense.
1977 Verónica Sánchez, actriz española.
1976 Patrick Kluivert, futbolista holandés.
1976 Ruud van Nistelrooy, futbolista holandés.
1975 Sufjan Stevens, músico estadounidense.
1972 Claire Forlani, actriz británica.
1971 Julianne Nicholson, actriz estadounidense.
1971 Missy Elliott, cantante estadounidense.
1968 Jordi Mollà, actor español.
1967 Pamela Anderson, actriz canadiense-estadounidense.
1966 Rafael Simancas, político del PSOE de Madrid nacido en Alemania.
1963 Roddy Bottum, músico estadounidense (Faith No More).
1961 Carl Lewis, atleta estadounidense.
1961 Diana Spencer, Princesa de Gales.
1961 Kalpana Chawla, astronauta estadounidense de origen hindú.
1953 Jesús María Sanz Iparraguirre, cantautor vasco.
1952 Dan Aykroyd, escritor, actor y guionista de cine canadiense.
1951 Fred Schneider, vocalista de la banda The B-52’s.
1945 Deborah Harry, cantante estadounidense (Blondie).
1941 Alfred G. Gilman, Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1994.
1941 Myron Scholes, economista canadiense, Premio Nobel en 1993.
1935 James Cotton, armonicista de blues estadounidense.
1934 Sydney Pollack, director de cine estadounidense.
1926 Hans Werner Henze, compositor alemán.
1926 Robert Fogel, economista e historiador estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Economía en 1993.
1917 Humphry Osmond, psiquiatra británico.
1916 Olivia de Havilland, actriz estadounidense.
1909 Juan Carlos Onetti, escritor uruguayo.
1902 William Wyler, director de cine estadounidense.
1899 Charles Laughton, actor y director de cine británico.
1886 Fernando Santibañez Puga, escritor chileno.
1789 Francisco Javier Mina Larrea, militar español.
1742 Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, científico y escritor alemán.
Fallecimientos Notables en Julio 1 …
2009 Alexis Argüello, político y boxeador nicaragüense (n. 1952).
2009 Baltasar Porcel, escritor español (n. 1937).
2009 Josefa Martín Luengo, pedagoga española (n. 1944).
2009 Karl Malden, actor estadounidense (n. 1912).
2009 Oscar Raúl Cardoso, periodista argentino (n. 1948).
2009 Wilson Elso Goñi, político uruguayo (n. 1938).
2008 Lucio Ballesteros Jaime, periodista, poeta y centenario español (n. 1906).
2005 Luther Vandross, cantante estadounidense.
2004 Marlon Brando, actor estadounidense.
2004 Peter Barnes, escritor inglés.
2003 Herbie Mann, flautista de jazz estadounidense.
2000 Walter Matthau, actor estadounidense.
1999 Edward Dmytryk, director de cine estadounidense.
1997 Robert Mitchum, actor estadounidense.^
1986 Leandro N. Alem, político argentino, fundador Unión Cívica Radical.
1974 Juan Domingo Perón, presidente argentino.
1971 William Lawrence Bragg, físico británico, premio Nobel de Física en 1915.
1964 Pierre Monteux, director de orquesta francés.
1961 Louis-Ferdinand Céline, escritor y médico francés.
1950 Eliel Saarinen, arquitecto finlandés.
1944 Tanya Savicheva, niña rusa que escribió un breve diario durante el asedio de Leningrado en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1925 Erik Satie, compositor y pianista francés.
1876 Mijaíl Bakunin, político ruso, teórico del anarquismo.
1566 Nostradamus, profeta francés.


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  •  1997 Hong Kong returned to China
  • American Revolution

  • 1775 Congress resolves to forge Indian alliances
  • Automotive

  • 2005 Last Ford Thunderbird produced
  • Civil War

  • 1863 The Battle of Gettysburg begins
  • Cold War

  • 1947 “Mr. X” article appears in Foreign Affairs
  • Crime

  • 2003 Kobe Bryant accuser goes to police
  • Disaster

  • 2002 Two planes collide over Germany
  • General Interest

  • 1867 Canadian Independence Day
  • 1898 The Battle of San Juan Hill
  • 1916 Battle of the Somme begins
  • Hollywood

  • 1984 PG-13 rating debuts
  • Literary

  • 1804 George Sand is born
  • Music

  • 1979 The first Sony Walkman goes on sale
  • Old West

  • 1887 Gunfighter Clay Allison killed
  • Presidential

  • 1916 Dwight D. Eisenhower marries “his Mamie”
  • Sports

  • 1951 Feller hurls third no-hitter
  • Vietnam War

  • 1965 Ball recommends compromise in Vietnam
  • 1966 Bombing of North Vietnam continues
  • World War II

  • 1942 The Battle of El Alamein begins



Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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