Agosto 18 en la Historia | bambinoides.com

Agosto 18 en la Historia

Women in U.S. clinch right to vote; Mongol ruler Genghis Khan dies; Vladimir Nabokov’s ‘Lolita’ published in U.S.; Soviet hard-liners launch coup against Gorbachev;  James Meredith graduates from Univ. of Miss.; South Africa banned from Olympics; Actor-director Robert Redford born.


Hoy en la Historia,

Agosto 18

en la Historia,

Today in History,

Women in U.S. clinch right to vote

Right-to-Vote-USA

“WASHINGTON, Aug. 26, 1920 (UP) – The right of women to the ballot was formally made a part of the Constitution of the United States today when Secretary of State Colby proclaimed ratification of the nineteenth amendment. Colby announced the proclamation when he arrived at his office today, having signed it shortly before at his home here.”

votes-for-women-bottom-right

 

Nabokov’s Lolita

Lolita is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov, written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, in 1958 in New York City, and in 1959 in London. Nabokov's own translation of the book into Russian was published by Phaedra Publishers in New York in 1967. The novel is notable for its controversial subject: the protagonist and unreliable narrator, a middle-aged literature professor called Humbert Humbert, is obsessed with the 12-year-old Dolores Haze, with whom he becomes sexually involved after he becomes her stepfather. "Lolita" is his private nickname for Dolores. Lolita quickly attained a classic status; it is today regarded as one of the prime achievements in 20th century literature, though also among the most controversial. The novel was adapted into a film by Stanley Kubrick in 1962, and again in 1997 by Adrian Lyne. It has also been adapted several times for the stage and has been the subject of two operas, two ballets, and an acclaimed but commercially unsuccessful Broadway musical. Its assimilation into popular culture is such that the name "Lolita" has been used to imply that a young girl is sexually precocious. Lolita is included on TIME magazine's list of the 100 best English-language novels published from 1923 to 2005. It is also fourth on the Modern Library's 1998 list of the 100 best novels of the 20th century, and holds a place in the Bokklubben World Library, a 2002 collection of the most celebrated books in history.

Lolita (Sue Lyon) in Stanley Kubrick’s 1962 film

Lolita_1955

Lolita is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov, written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, in 1958 in New York City, and in 1959 in London. Nabokov’s own translation of the book into Russian was published by Phaedra Publishers in New York in 1967. The novel is notable for its controversial subject: the protagonist and unreliable narrator, a middle-aged literature professor called Humbert Humbert, is obsessed with the 12-year-old Dolores Haze, with whom he  becomes sexually involved after he becomes her stepfather. “Lolita” is his private nickname for Dolores.

“Nabokov’s ‘Lolita’ Is Constantly Banned. It’s Also a Work of Genius.”: The New Republic reprints R.W. Flint’s 1957 article exploring the controversy that engulfed Vladimir Nabokov’s 1955 masterpiece.

Lolita quickly attained a classic status; it is today regarded as one of the prime achievements in 20th century literature, though also among the most controversial. The novel was adapted into a film by Stanley Kubrick in 1962, and again in 1997 by Adrian Lyne. It has also been adapted several times for the stage and has been the subject of two operas, two ballets, and an acclaimed but commercially unsuccessful Broadway musical. Its assimilation into popular culture is such that the name “Lolita” has been used to imply that a young girl is sexually precocious.

 

Lolita is included on TIME magazine’s list of the 100 best English-language novels published from 1923 to 2005. It is also fourth on the Modern Library’s 1998 list of the 100 best novels of the 20th century, and holds a place in the Bokklubben World Library, a 2002 collection of the most celebrated books in history.

 

1227

Genghis Khan dies

Resultado de imagen de Genghis KhanGenghis Khan, the Mongol leader who forged an empire stretching from the east coast of China west to the Aral Sea, dies in camp during a campaign against the Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. The great Khan, who was over 60 and in failing health, may have succumbed to injuries incurred during a fall from a horse in the previous year.

Genghis Khan was born as Temujin around 1162. His father, a minor Mongol chieftain, died when Temujin was in his early teens. Temujin succeeded him, but the tribe would not obey so young a chief. Temporarily abandoned, Temujin’s family was left to fend for themselves in the wilderness of the Steppes.

By his late teens, Temujin had grown into a feared warrior and charismatic figure who began gathering followers and forging alliances with other Mongol leaders. After his wife was kidnapped by a rival tribe, Temujin organized a military force to defeat the tribe. Successful, he then turned against other clans and tribes and set out to unite the Mongols by force. Many warriors voluntarily came to his side, but those who did not were defeated and then offered the choice of obedience or death. The nobility of conquered tribes were generally executed. By 1206, Temujin was the leader of a great Mongol confederation and was granted the title Genghis Khan, translated as “Oceanic Ruler” or “Universal Ruler.”

Khan promulgated a code of conduct and organized his armies on a system of 10: 10 men to a squad, 10 squads to a company, 10 companies to a regiment, and 10 regiments to a “Tumen,” a fearful military unit made up of 10,000 cavalrymen. Because of their nomadic nature, the Mongols were able to breed far more horses than sedentary civilizations, which could not afford to sacrifice farmland for large breeding pastures. All of Khan’s warriors were mounted, and half of any given army was made up of armored soldiers wielding swords and lances. Light cavalry archers filled most of the remaining ranks. Khan’s family and other trusted clan members led these highly mobile armies, and by 1209 the Mongols were on the move against China.

Using an extensive network of spies and scouts, Khan detected a weakness in his enemies’ defenses and then attacked the point with as many as 250,000 cavalrymen at once. When attacking large cities, the Mongols used sophisticated sieging equipment such as catapults and mangonels and even diverted rivers to flood out the enemy. Most armies and cities crumbled under the overwhelming show of force, and the massacres that followed a Mongol victory eliminated thoughts of further resistance. Those who survived–and millions did not–were granted religious freedom and protection within the rapidly growing Mongol empire. By 1227, Khan had conquered much of Central Asia and made incursions into Eastern Europe, Persia, and India. His great empire stretched from central Russia down to the Aral Sea in the west, and from northern China down to Beijing in the east.

On August 18, 1227, while putting down a revolt in the kingdom of Xi Xia, Genghis Khan died. On his deathbed, he ordered that Xi Xia be wiped from the face of the earth. Obedient as always, Khan’s successors leveled whole cities and towns, killing or enslaving all their inhabitants. Obeying his order to keep his death secret, Genghis’ heirs slaughtered anyone who set eyes on his funeral procession making its way back to Karakorum, the capital of the Mongol empire. Still bringing death as he had in life, many were killed before his corpse was buried in an unmarked grave. His final resting place remains a mystery.

The Mongol empire continued to grow after Genghis Khan’s death, eventually encompassing most of inhabitable Eurasia. The empire disintegrated in the 14th century, but the rulers of many Asian states claimed descendant from Genghis Khan and his captains.

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BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred”

1964:

South Africa banned from Olympics

South Africa has been barred from taking part in the 18th Olympic Games in Tokyo over its refusal to condemn apartheid.The International Olympic Committee (IOC) announced the decision in Lausanne, Switzerland, after South Africa failed to meet an ultimatum to comply with its demands by 16 August.

The IOC originally withdrew South Africa’s invitation to Japan during the winter games in Innsbruck, Austria.

It said the decision could be overturned only if South Africa renounced racial discrimination in sport and opposed the ban in its own country on competition between white and black athletes.

Face the ban

Although the South Africans announced in June they would be including seven non-whites in their team of 62 Olympic hopefuls – the move did not go far enough for the IOC.

On 26 June, the committee gave South Africa one last chance to make the declaration within 50 days or face the ban.

The IOC said nothing short of a public announcement made in the newspapers and on the radio renouncing all racial discrimination in sport would be acceptable.

Committee secretary Otto Meyer said at the time he did not believe the South Africans would have a change of heart.

In fact the South African Amateur Athletic Union subsequently pulled out of a British athletics meeting in June in protest at the IOC’s ultimatum.

The union, which was to have sent a team of nine white and two black South Africans, accused the IOC of introducing politics into sport.

The South African refusal to condemn apartheid drew further condemnation before the games.

At the Wimbledon tennis championships in London at the end of June, there were protests against South African policy. Several players scheduled to meet South Africans pulled out of the competition.

In Context

South Africa was barred from the Olympics until Barcelona in 1992 – following the repeal of all apartheid laws the previous year.In October 1964, it was also suspended indefinitely by FIFA, football’s international governing body.

South Africa’s apartheid policy also led to trade sanctions and a ban on cricket and rugby tours during the 1970s and 1980s.

In 1990 a team of rebel cricketers flew to South Africa. The tourists, who included former England captain Mike Gatting, were greeted with protests and the trip was curtailed. Gatting faced a five year ban from test cricket for taking part.

The Tokyo games were memorable for the British team which achieved its best haul of medals since the 1908 games. Mary Rand picked up Britain’s first gold for women’s athletics with a world record in the long jump.

Ethiopia’s surprise victor in the Rome marathon, Abebe Bikila retained his title – just six weeks after having his appendix removed.

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History Channel

“This Day in History” 

1991

Soviet hard-liners launch coup against Gorbachev

mikhail-gorbachev_2On this day in 1991, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is placed under house arrest during a coup by high-ranking members of his own government, military and police forces.

Since becoming secretary of the Communist Party in 1985 and president of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1988, Gorbachev had pursued comprehensive reforms of the Soviet system. Combining perestroika(“restructuring”) of the economy–including a greater emphasis on free-market policies–and glasnost (“openness”) in diplomacy, he greatly improved Soviet relations with Western democracies, particularly the United States. Meanwhile, though, within the USSR, Gorbachev faced powerful critics, including conservative, hard-line politicians and military officials who thought he was driving the Soviet Union toward its downfall and making it a second-rate power. On the other side were even more radical reformers–particularly Boris Yeltsin, president of the most powerful socialist republic, Russia–who complained that Gorbachev was just not working fast enough.

mikhail-gorbachev_1The August 1991 coup was carried out by the hard-line elements within Gorbachev’s own administration, as well as the heads of the Soviet army and the KGB, or secret police. Detained at his vacation villa in the Crimea, he was placed under house arrest and pressured to give his resignation, which he refused to do. Claiming Gorbachev was ill, the coup leaders, headed by former vice president Gennady Yanayev, declared a state of emergency and attempted to take control of the government.

Yeltsin and his backers from the Russian parliament then stepped in, calling on the Russian people to strike and protest the coup. When soldiers tried to arrest Yeltsin, they found the way to the parliamentary building blocked by armed and unarmed civilians. Yeltsin himself climbed aboard a tank and spoke through a megaphone, urging the troops not to turn against the people and condemning the coup as a “new reign of terror.” The soldiers backed off, some of them choosing to join the resistance. After thousands took the streets to demonstrate, the coup collapsed after only three days.

Gorbachev was released and flown to Moscow, but his regime had been dealt a deadly blow. Over the next few months, he dissolved the Communist Party, granted independence to the Baltic states, and proposed a looser, more economics-based federation among the remaining republics. In December 1991, Gorbachev resigned. Yeltsin capitalized on his defeat of the coup, emerging from the rubble of the former Soviet Union as the most powerful figure in Moscow and the leader of the newly formed Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

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Images from Today’s History

 

Associated Press

History Channel

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo

 Efemérides:

18 DE AGOSTO

293 a. E.C. Se construye el primer templo romano a Venus conocido; comienza la institución de los festivales Vinalia Rústica.
1201 En Letonia se funda la aldea de Riga.
1467 Las tropas de Enrique IV vencen en la batalla de Olmedo a las de la liga nobiliaria.
1480 En la isla de Gran Canaria desembarca la expedición organizada por los Reyes Católicos para la conquista del archipiélago.
1487 Una facción contraria a los ideales de Hamet el Zegri, ultimo alcaide musulmán de Málaga, negocia traidoramente la rendición de la ciudad con los Reyes Católicos y los pendones cristianos son enarbolados en la Torre del Homenaje.
1492 Publicación de la primera edición de la Gramática de la Lengua Castellana, de Antonio de Nebrija.
1502 En el sur del océano Atlántico, Juan de Nova (navegante gallego al servicio de la corona de Portugal) descubre un islote al que da el nombre de Santa Elena.

1541 En la prefectura Kumamoto (Japón), un barco portugués fondea en la costa de Higo.

1562 En Zacatecas (México), Alonso López de Lois funda la aldea de Santa Elena (actual Río Grande).
1572 En París, el rey hugonote Enrique IV de Francia se casa con Margarita de Valois, en un intento de reconciliar a los protestantes con los católicos. (imagen dch)
1796 Los gobiernos de España y Francia establecen una alianza contra Inglaterra, en el Tratado de San Ildefonso, obra de Manuel de Godoy.
1812 Gran Bretaña invade territorio estadounidense. Un comando llega hasta la capital, y el presidente James Madison escapa de la Casa Blanca. Esta es la primera vez en la historia que Estados Unidos es invadido.
1825 España: ejecutado el guerrillero y general liberal Juan Martín Díaz, el Empecinado.
1834 Se considera terminada la epidemia del cólera morbo asiático que invadió Granada desde el día 6 de Enero y que ocasionó 5.800 víctimas.
1838 En el canal Hampton Roads fondea la expedición Wilkes, que debería haber explorado la Puget Sound y la Antártida.
1841 En la ciudad de San Juan (Argentina) se libra la batalla de La Chacarilla. Nazario Benavídez recupera la ciudad y captura al general Mariano Acha.
1846 Las tropas estadounidenses ocupan Santa Fe: Nuevo México se incorpora a EE.UU.
1848 En Argentina, el gobernador de Buenos Aires Juan Manuel de Rosas manda fusilar al sacerdote Ladislao Gutiérrez y Camila O’Gorman.
1850 En España, una real orden da origen al Archivo Histórico Nacional. (imagen izq)
1858 Entre Europa y América se realizan las primeras comunicaciones por cable submarino.
1864 En Petersburg (Virginia) en el marco de la Guerra Civil de Estados Unidos se libra la batalla de Globe Tavern: fuerzas unionistas intentan cortar la línea de suministros de los confederados, atacando la línea ferroviaria.
1868 En Francia, el astrónomo Pierre Jules César Janssen descubre el helio.
1870 En el marco de la Guerra Franco-Prusiana, se inicia la batalla de Gravelotte.
1877 Asaph Hall descubre Fobos, una de las lunas de Marte.
1891 En Martinica, un terremoto mata a 700 personas.
1903 El ingeniero alemán Karl Jatho proclama haber volado en un artilugio motorizado cuatro meses antes de que lo hicieran los Hermanos Wright.
1904 En Australia, Chris Watson renuncia al cargo de primer ministro y es sucedido por George Reid.
1910 Se suspenden los trabajos en los altos hornos de Bilbao, a consecuencia de la huelga minera. (imagen dch)
1917 En Tesalónica (Grecia), un incendio destruye el 32 % de la ciudad, dejando a 70 000 personas sin hogar.
1920 En Estados Unidos se firma la Decimonovena Enmienda a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos, que garantiza el sufragio a la mujer.
1922 En España se disuelve por decreto el cuerpo de Correos, como respuesta a la huelga que los funcionarios del Cuerpo habían planteado.
1925 Es secuestrado en España el Noticiero Universal, al que se le impone una multa de 500 pesetas por la publicación de un telegrama referente a la campaña de Marruecos.
 
1935 Prohibidos los matrimonios mixtos en Alemania entre arios y no arios.
1936 Guerra Civil española:
Comienza a regir el Decreto del Gobierno de la República sobre incautación de fincas rústicas abandonadas por sus propietarios.
Las fuerzas nacionales” del general gaditano José Enrique Varela Iglesias ocupan Loja (Granada), rompiendo así el asedio republicano de Granada y estableciendo comunicación directa con Sevilla. (imagen izq)
Un grupo de milicianos asesina en Belalcázar (Córdoba) a los religiosos carmelitas Eliseo María Camargo Montes y José María Ruiz Cardeñosa, naturales de Osuna (Sevilla), mientras en Valdemoro (Madrid) es asesinado el granadino Francisco Arias Martín.
Es fusilado en Córdoba por las fuerzas nacionales Francisco Copado Moyano, político nacido en Nerva (Huelva).
Un grupo de falangistas asesina en Cádiz a Celestino Alvarado Quirós, político y sindicalista nacido en Cádiz.
Muere asesinado por el Bando Nacional, el poeta granadino Federico García Lorca. (imagen dch)
1939 El Boletín Oficial del Estado publica la orden por la que se separa del servicio a varios catedráticos de Universidad, entre ellos Américo Castro, Claudio Sánchez Albornoz, Pedro Salinasy Niceto Alcalá Zamora.
1938 Se acaba la construcción del Puente de las Mil Islas, que conecta el Estado de Nueva York con Ontario, pasando sobre el río San Lorenzo (Canadá), y dedicado al presidente de los Estados Unidos Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1941 Adolf Hitler ordena la eutanasia sistemática de los enfermos mentales.
1947 En Cádiz (España) estalla un depósito de explosivos de la Marina de Guerra, causando unos 150 fallecidos y más de 5000 heridos.
1950 En Bélgica es asesinado Julien Lahaut, el líder del Partido Comunista de Bélgica.
1952 En Chile, desde este año se celebra el Día de la Solidaridad, en conmemoración del fallecimiento de san Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga, que dedicó su vida a los más desfavorecidos.
1958 Vladimir Nabokov publica su polémica obra Lolita. (imagen izq)
1958 En el atolón Enewetak (islas Marshall, en medio del océano Pacífico), Estados Unidos detona su bomba atómica Fig, de 0,02 kt. (En comparación, la bomba de Hiroshima fue de 13 kt). Es la bomba n.º 156 de las 1054 que Estados Unidos detonó entre 1945 y 1992, y la última que se hizo explotar en esta isla.
1963 En la Universidad de Misisipi, James Meredith se convierte en el primer graduado negro.
1965 En la península de Van Tuong en el marco de la Guerra del Vietnam comienza la Operación Starlite: los marines estadounidenses destruyen la estructura del Viet Cong.
1966 En la Guerra del Vietnam se produce la Batalla de Long Tan cuando una patrulla del Sexto Batallón del Regimiento Australiano Real se encuentra con una guerrilla del Vietcong.
1969 En Bethel (Nueva York) concluye el Festival de Woodstock.
1971 Australia y Nueva Zelanda retiran sus tropas de Vietnam.
1973 En el estado de Guanajuato (México) se inunda la ciudad de Irapuato.
1976 En la Zona desmilitarizada de Corea de Panmunjeom, se produce el Incidente Axe Murder acaba con la muerte de dos soldados estadounidenses.
1977 En Sudáfrica, la policía arresta a Steve Biko bajo la acusación de acto de terrorismo de King William’s Town en 1967. Morirá días después a causa de las contusiones que recibió de las fuerzas policiales del apartheid. (imagen dch)
1980 Los habitantes del pueblo sevillano de Marinaleda, con una media de parados del 90%, se declaran en huelga de hambre.
1983 En Estados Unidos, el Huracán Alicia llega a las costas de Tejas, causando 21 muertes y daños valorados en 2600&nbsp:millones de dólares.
1986 En el Monasterio de Montserrat (España), un incendio forestal provocado aísla a mil personas.
1989 Cerca de Bogotá (Colombia) es asesinado el candidato presidental colombiano Luis Carlos Galán.
1991 Tres miembros de la banda criminal ETA resultan muertos por la Guardia Civil en un tiroteo en San Sebastián.

1992 Los Laboratorios Wang entran en bancarrota.

1995 El Tribunal Supremo de España asume el caso GAL y reclama al juez Baltasar Garzón el sumario. (imagen izq)
1996 Vélez Sarsfield empata 0 a 0 en el José Amalfitani ante Independiente y consagra, por primera vez, bicampeón del fútbol argentino. Éste fue su cuarto título a nivel local.
2001 La banda terrorista ETA siembra el pánico en la localidad tarraconense de Salou al hacer estallar un coche bomba frente a un hotel del paseo marítimo.
2001 Las patrulleras de la Guardia Civil interceptan en las costas de Algeciras, Tarifa, Ceuta y Fuerteventura a cerca de 600 inmigrantes irregulares en la mayor avalancha registrada en todo el año.
2008 El presidente de Paquistán Pervez Musharaf presenta su renuncia, tras sufrir amenaza de impeachment. (imagen dch)

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 Hispanópolis:

Agosto 18 en la Historia del Mundo …
1947 España: Estalla un depósito de explosivos de la Marina de Guerra en los astilleros de Cádiz, mueren más de 150 personas y el número de heridos supera los 5000. Gran número de edificios resultan dañados.
1858 Primeras comunicaciones por cable submarino entre Europa y América.
1812 Gran Bretaña invade territorio estadounidense. Un comando llega hasta la capital, y el Presidente James Madison escapa de la Casa Blanca. Esta es la primera vez en la historia que Estados Unidos es invadido.
1492 Publicación de la primera edición de la Gramática sobre la Lengua Castellana, de Antonio de Nebrija.
Nacimientos Notables en Agosto 18 …
1984 Robert Huth, futbolista alemán.
1983 Mika Penniman, cantante libanés.
1981 César Delgado, futbolista argentino.
1980 Esteban Cambiasso, futbolista argentino.
1979 Aamir Ghaffar, jugador de bádminton inglés.
1969 Christian Slater, actor estadounidense.
1969 Edward Norton, actor estadounidense.
1962 Felipe Calderón Hinojosa, Presidente de México.
1958 Madeleine Stowe, actriz estadounidense.
1958 Olga Viza, periodista española.
1952 Patrick Swayze, actor estadounidense.
1948 Santiago de la Parte, atleta retirado y entrenador de atletismo español.
1945 Pedro de Silva Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, presidente de la C.A. del Principado de Asturias.
1943 Gianni Rivera, futbolista italiano.
1937 Robert Redford, actor y director de cine estadounidense.
1934 Roberto Clemente, beisbolista puertorriqueño.
1933 Just Fontaine, futbolista francés.
1933 Roman Polanski, director de cine y actor polaco.
1930 Liviu Librescu, científico israelí-estadounidense, asesinado en la Masacre de Virginia Tech.
1920 Juan Soriano, pintor mexicano.
1920 Shelley Winters, actriz estadounidense.
1875 Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, rey de Nepal (1881-1911).
1830 Francisco José, emperador de Austria (1848-1916) y rey de Hungría (1867-1916).
1776 Agustín Argüelles, abogado, político y diplomático español.
1750 Antonio Salieri, compositor italiano.
1685 Brook Taylor, matemático británico.
Fallecimientos Notables en Agosto 18 …
2009 Kim Dae-Jung, político, presidente surcoreano entre 1998 y 2003 y Premio Nobel de la Paz en 2000 (n. 1924).
2009 Robert Novak, periodista estadounidense (n. 1931).
2008 René Tercero Reyes Aguirre, motociclista mexicano (n. 1983).
2004 Elmer Bernstein, compositor estadounidense.
1995 Julio Caro Baroja, antropólogo, historiador, lingüista y ensayista español.
1992 John Sturges, director de cine estadounidense.
1990 Burrhus Frederic Skinner, psicólogo norteamericano.
1989 Luis Carlos Galán Sarmiento, político y abogado colombiano.
1952 Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga, santo chileno, jesuita fundador del Hogar de Cristo.
1944 Ernst Thälmann, político alemán.
1942 Erwin Schulhoff, compositor checo.
1922 Guillermo Enrique Hudson.
1850 Honorato de Balzac, novelista francés.
1642 Guido Reni, pintor italiano.
1559 Pablo IV (Papa 1555 – 1503), en Roma. Nació en Valencia en 1431.
1503 Alejandro VI (Papa 1492 – 1503).
1227 Gengis Khan , fundador del imperio mongol
0440 Sixto III (Papa 432 – 440).
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History Channel

“Also on this Day”

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Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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Confrontando la información, - el pasado y el presente...
"Estudia el pasado si quieres pronosticar el futuro" (Confucio)
“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)