Abril 26 en la historia: | bambinoides.com
Martes 25 Abril, 2017 19:45

Abril 26 en la historia:

Polio vaccine trials begin; The Chernobyl nuclear accident; John Wilkes Booth, President Lincoln’s assassin, killed; Guernica bombed in the Spanish Civil War; First US rocket lands on Moon; Vermont enacts same-sex civil unions; TV star Lucille Ball dies.

Hoy en la Historia – Today in History

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred

1962:

First US rocket lands on Moon

Ranger IV

Ranger IV took off on 23 April from Cape Canaveral

The American Moon rocket Ranger IV has landed on the far side of the moon but has failed to send back pictures due to a technical fault.

It is the first time an American spacecraft has successfully reached the Moon – the Russians achieved the first ever lunar impact in 1959.

However, the main aim of the mission – to take television pictures of the lunar surface – was not achieved after all internal power on board the spacecraft failed two hours after launch.

The Ranger IV Atlas-Agena rocket, which took off from Cape Canaveral on 23 April, is one of the most sophisticated space machines ever developed.

Crash-land

It was specifically designed to crash-land on the Moon after capturing a series of images of the lunar surface on its approach.

The television pictures on board were designed to begin operating when the rocket came within 2,500 miles (4,023km) of the lunar surface – 40 minutes before impact – and then send an image of the Moon back to Earth every 13 seconds.

After the loss of internal power the spacecraft could only be tracked using the tiny radio transmitter in the lunar capsule. This is how scientists confirmed it had actually reached the Moon.

The latest mission was identical to that of Ranger III, which launched on 26 January this year.

But the expected pictures from that mission were not produced because the rocket missed the Moon by 22,862 miles (36,793km).

Nasa scientists will be hugely disappointed by this latest failure as a successful mission would have given them the first ever close-up images of the mysterious lunar surface.

Ranger IV was also equipped with a seismometer and radio transmitter, designed to be released in a small capsule from the rocket before impact and land on the Moon in sufficiently good condition to measure the frequency of natural earthquakes in the body of the Moon.

Images from this would have been sent back to Earth for up to 30 days for vital research.

In Context
The Ranger rockets marked a new phase in space exploration and were a significant part of America’s attempt to be the first to put a man on the Moon.The first six Rangers failed, some of them missing the moon entirely.

Finally, on 31 July 1964, Ranger VII sent back more than 4,000 images before crashing into the Moon’s Mare Cognitum (Known Sea).

The closest images, taken only seconds before impact, showed features as small as a few feet across.

Ranger VIII repeated the feat in February 1965, while Ranger IX brought a successful end to the programme in March 1965.

Altogether, these three Rangers gave scientists a new understanding of the lunar surface and helped pave the way for the Apollo astronauts.

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Images from Today’s History:

 

Associated Press

History Channel

Hitler's Destruction of Guernica: Practicing Blitzkrieg in Basque Country. The attack quickly became the symbol of senseless destruction and for Nazi brutality. "Guernica, city with 5,000 residents," the commander of the Condor Legion, Wolfram von Richthofen, noted curtly in his journal, "has been literally razed to the ground. Bomb craters can be seen in the streets. Simply wonderful." Not a word was written about the hundreds of dead.

Guernica

April 26, 1937 was a Monday, a market day. Thousands of people were out on the streets of the Basque town of Guernica when around 4:30 in the afternoon, the bells suddenly began ringing. Air raid alarm!

Hitler’s Destruction of Guernica: Practicing Blitzkrieg in Basque Country. The attack quickly became the symbol of senseless destruction and for German Nazi brutality.

“Guernica, city with 5,000 residents,” the commander of the German Condor Legion, Wolfram von Richthofen, noted curtly in his journal, “has been literally razed to the ground. Bomb craters can be seen in the streets. Simply wonderful.” Not a word was written about the hundreds of dead.

 

Chernobyl

In 1986, the world’s worst nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl plant in the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire in the No. 4 reactor sent radioactivity into the atmosphere; at least 31 Soviets died immediately.

In 1986, the world’s worst nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl plant in the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire in the No. 4 reactor sent radioactivity into the atmosphere; at least 31 Soviets died immediately.

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This Day in History

History Channel

1954Polio vaccine trials begin_1

Polio-vaccine-trials-begin_5

This image shows a polio vaccination in Kansas, 1957.

Polio vaccine trials begin

Polio-vaccine-trials-begin_3On this day in 1954, the Salk polio vaccine field trials, involving 1.8 million children, begin at the Franklin Sherman Elementary School in McLean, Virginia. Children in the United States, Canada and Finland participated in the trials, which used for the first time the now-standard double-blind method, whereby neither the patient nor attending doctor knew if the inoculation was the vaccine or a placebo. On April 12, 1955, researchers announced the vaccine was safe and effective and it quickly became a standard part of childhood immunizations in America. In the ensuing decades, polio vaccines would all but wipe out the highly contagious disease in the Western Hemisphere.

Polio, known officially as poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease that has existed since ancient times and is caused by a virus. It occurs most commonly in children and can result in paralysis. The disease reached epidemic proportions throughout the first half of the 20th century. During the 1940s and 1950s, polio was associated with the iron lung, a large metal tank designed to help polio victims suffering from respiratory paralysis breathe.

Polio-vaccine-trials-begin_2President Franklin Roosevelt was diagnosed with polio in 1921 at the age of 39 and was left paralyzed from the waist down and forced to use leg braces and a wheelchair for the rest of his life. In 1938, Roosevelt helped found the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later renamed the March of Dimes. The organization was responsible for funding much of the research concerning the disease, including the Salk vaccine trials.

The man behind the original vaccine was New York-born physician and epidemiologist Jonas Salk (1914-95). Salk’s work on an anti-influenza vaccine in the 1940s, while at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, led him, in 1952 at the University of Pittsburgh, to develop the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), based on a killed-virus strain of the disease. The 1954 field trials that followed, the largest in U.S. history at the time, were led by Salk’s former University of Michigan colleague, Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr.

In the late 1950s, Polish-born physician and virologist Albert Sabin (1906-1993) tested an oral polio vaccine (OPV) he had created from a weakened live virus. The vaccine, easier to administer and cheaper to produce than Salk’s, became available for use in America in the early 1960s and eventually replaced Salk’s as the vaccine of choice in most countries.

Today, polio has been eliminated throughout much of the world due to the vaccine; however, there is still no cure for the disease and it persists in a small number of countries in Africa and Asia.

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:

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 Hispanópolis:

Abril 26 se celebra…
  • Día Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual.
  • Nicaragua – Día de la Secretaria
Abril 26 en la Historia del Mundo …
2009 El Polo Norte geográfico fue alcanzado por primera vez por la expedición rusa MLAE-2009 de Vasili Yelagin.
2007 Un sismo de 6.2 grados en la escala de Richter asoló a las ciudades de Puerto Aisén y Puerto Chacabuco, provocando una gran emergencia en Chile y su gobierno.
1991 El futbolista Diego Armando Maradona es detenido por posesión de drogas.
1986 Accidente en la central nuclear Chernóbil a las afueras de Pripyat, RSS de Ucrania, Unión Soviética.
1937 España: Bombardeo de Guernica
1936 Triunfo del Frente Popular en las elecciones en Francia.
1931 Se publica la novela Las olas, de Virginia Woolf.
1928 España: Ramón Pérez de Ayala es elegido académico de la lengua.
1925 Paul von Hindenburg es elegido presidente de la República alemana.
1924 Se publica El proceso, la primera de las grandes novelas de Franz Kafka.
1922 España: Fallecen 28 personas en Málaga tras el incendio que destruye el edificio de la aduana.
1918 Alemania y la U.R.S.S. establecen relaciones diplomáticas.
1915 Los aliados e Italia firman en Londres un acuerdo secreto, en el que los primeros ofrecen al país compensaciones territoriales si declara la guerra a Austria.
1904 España: Benito Pérez Galdós se convierte en diputado republicano.
1903 Se funda el Club Atlético de Madrid , en la ciudad de Madrid.
1860 Se firma la paz en Tetuán que pone fin a la Guerra de África entre España y Marruecos.
1829 España: Fernando VII aprueba un decreto para que se proceda a la elaboración de un nuevo Código Penal.
1828 Rusia declara la guerra a Turquía por una supuesta violación del tratado de Ackermann.
1544 Martínez de Irala sustituye a Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca como gobernador de Paraguay.
1238 España: Se produce una revuelta contra Abd Allah Zannun tras la cual Málaga pasa a soberanía nazarí.
Nacimientos Notables en Abril 26 …
1983 José María López, piloto de carreras argentino.
1981 Matthieu Delpierre, futbolista francés.
1980 Jordana Brewster, actriz estadounidense.
1979 Ariane Moffatt, cantante y compositora canadiense.
1979 Janne Wirman, músico finés (Children of Bodom)
1978 Avant, cantante de R&B estadounidense.
1977 Tom Welling, actor estadounidense.
1976 Jose Pasillas, músico estadounidense (Incubus).
1975 Joey Jordison, músico estadounidense (Slipknot).
1975 Marco Massoni-Oyarzún, poeta chileno.
1972 Kiko Narváez, futbolista español.
1967 Glen Jacobs, luchador profesional estadounidense.
1966 Yoshihiro Togashi, mangaka japones.
1963 Jet Li, actor y especialista en artes marciales chino.
1961 Joan Chen, actriz y directora de cine china.
1960 Roger Andrew Taylor, baterista británico (Duran Duran).
1958 Jeffrey Guterman, educador, autor, y profesor estadounidense.
1956 Imanol Arias, actor español.
1950 Eladio Vallduví-Casals, deportista español, campeón mundial de tiro al plato.
1949 Carlos Bianchi, ex-jugador y entrenador de fubol argentino.
1943 Peter Zumthor, arquitecto suizo.
1941 John Mitchell, compositor estadounidense.
1940 Giorgio Moroder, compositor italiano.
1936 Llorenç Vidal Vidal, poeta mallorquín fundador del Día Escolar de la No-violencia y la Paz (DENIP).
1933 Arno Allan Penzias, científico estadounidense de origen alemán, Premio Nobel de Física en 1978.
1933 Carol Burnett, actriz estadounidense.
1933 Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, activista puertorriqueño.
1932 Michael Smith, químico canadiense, Premio Nobel de Química en 1993.
1927 Enrique Domínguez Millán, poeta y escritor español.
1924 Gyula Kosice, escultor checo-argentino, precursor del arte cinético.
1922 Jeanne Sauve, periodista y política canadiense.
1918 Fanny Blankers-Koen, atleta holandesa.
1917 Ieoh Ming Pei, arquitecto estadounidense de origen chino.
1916 Morris West, escritor australiano.
1914 Bernard Malamud, cuentista y novelista estadounidense.
1912 A. E. van Vogt, escritor de ciencia ficción estadounidense.
1906 José María de Llanos Pastor, sacerdote jesuita y militante comunista español.
1900 Charles Richter, sismólogo estadounidense.
1898 John Grierson, director de cine escocés.
1898 Vicente Aleixandre, poeta español, Premio Nobel de Literatura en 1977.
1896 Ernst Udet, militar alemán.
1894 Rudolf Hess, militar y político alemán.
1889 Ludwig Wittgenstein, filósofo angloaustriaco.
1884 Marcelino Domingo, escritor y político español, varias veces ministro en la II República.
1879 Owen Willans Richardson, físico inglés, premio Nobel de Física en 1928.
1878 Rafael Guízar y Valencia, primer obispo mexicano.
1856 Henri Philippe Pétain, mariscal y presidente de Francia.
1847 Cleto Zavala, compositor español.
1822 Frederick Law Olmsted, arquitecto estadounidense.
1812 Alfred Krupp, empresario alemán.
1798 Eugène Delacroix, pintor francés.
1787 Ludwig Uhland, poeta y filólogo alemán.
1785 John James Audubon, naturalista, ornitólogo estadounidense.
1764 Pedro María González Gutiérrez, médico y militar español.
1711 David Hume, filósofo escocés.
1710 Thomas Reid, pensador escocés.
1684 Pedro II, rey de Portugal.
1319 Juan II el Bueno, rey de Francia.
Fallecimientos Notables en Abril 26 …
2007 Jack Valenti, Ex-presidente de la Asociación Estadounidense de Cine (MPAA).
2005 Augusto Roa Bastos, escritor paraguayo, ganador del Premio Cervantes.
2005 María Schell, actriz austríaca.
2004 Francisca Méndez Garrido, la Paquera de Jerez, cantaora flamenca española.
2003 Bertram Ross, bailarín y coreógrafo estadounidense.
1995 Luis Miravitlles, divulgador científico español.
1994 Estanislao de Aranzadi, editor español.
1990 Carlos Pizarro León-Gómez, político colombiano.
1989 Lucille Ball, actriz estadounidense.
1984 Count Basie, músico de jazz estadounidense.
1976 Sandher Crush, escritor y filosofo Inglés.
1974 María Fernanda Ladrón de Guevara, actriz española.
1969 Morihei Ueshiba, japonés, fundador del Aikido.
1957 Gichin Funakoshi, japonés, fundador del Karate Shotokan
1951 Arnold Johannes Sommerfeld, físico alemán.
1946 Hermann A. Keyserling, filósofo alemán.
1940 Carl Bosch, químico e industrial alemán, premio Nobel de Química en 1931.
1920 Srinivasa Ramanujan, matemático hindú.
1910 Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson, político y escritor noruego, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1903.
1865 John Wilkes Booth, asesino de Abraham Lincoln.
1731 Daniel Defoe, escritor británico.
1196 Alfonso II el Casto, rey de Aragón (1162-1196)
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History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1954 Polio vaccine trials begin
  • American Revolution

  • 1711 David Hume is born
  • Automotive

  • 2009 Chrysler and autoworkers’ union agree to a deal
  • Civil War

  • 1865 Lincoln assassin John Wilkes Booth dies
  • Cold War

  • 1954 Geneva Conference begins
  • Crime

  • 1913 Girl murdered in pencil factory
  • Disaster

  • 1986 Nuclear explosion at Chernobyl
  • General Interest

  • 1937 Nazis test Luftwaffe on Guernica
  • 1986 Nuclear disaster at Chernobyl
  • Hollywood

  • 1986 Maria Shriver marries Arnold Schwarzenegger
  • Literary

  • 1888 Anita Loos is born
  • Music

  • 1977 Studio 54 opens
  • 2013 Country music star George Jones dies
  • Old West

  • 1798 James Beckwourth is born
  • Presidential

  • 1984 Reagan visits China
  • Sports

  • 1918 Olympic track star Fanny Blankers-Koen is born
  • Vietnam War

  • 1971 U.S. troop strength in South Vietnam at five-year low
  • 1972 Nixon announces additional troop withdrawals
  • World War I

  • 1915 Allies sign Treaty of London
  • World War II

  • 1894 Rudolf Hess is born
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 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia


Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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