Abril 25 en la historia: | bambinoides.com
Lunes 24 Abril, 2017 19:45

Abril 25 en la historia:

Yuri Andrópov writes to U.S. student; Tehran hostage rescue mission fails; Russian armies completely encircle Berlin – U.S. and Soviet troops meet in World War II; Radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi born; ‘America’ first used on a world map; The Hubble Space Telescope deployed into orbit; Jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald born.

Hoy en la Historia – Today in History

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred

1980:

Tehran hostage rescue mission fails

US Embassy in Tehran shortly after occupation

The US Embassy in Tehran was seized by Islamic militants on 3 November 1979

A top-secret attempt by the United States to free American hostages held in Iran’s capital,Tehran, has collapsed in failure, with the death of eight soldiers.President Carter announced the disastrous mission in a broadcast to the nation earlier today.

“I ordered this rescue mission prepared in order to safeguard American lives and protect America’s national interests, and to reduce the tensions in the world that have been caused among many nations as this crisis has continued,” he said.

He took full personal responsibility for the operation, and its cancellation, but did not rule out another attempt.

It was the first the American public, or the wider world, had heard of the mission, although it had been planned since shortly after the US embassy in Iran was seized last November by Islamic militants. They have held 53 US citizens hostage there ever since.

The dramatic attempt to free the hostages began yesterday when six Hercules C130 transport planes set off to rendezvous with a group of nine helicopters at a remote desert airstrip, south-east of Tehran.

But the mission ran into trouble almost as soon as it had started.

From farce to tragedy

Two helicopters went down with engine trouble, and a third was diverted to help.

Then another helicopter was damaged as it landed on the airstrip, leaving only five workable helicopters. The mission had become impossible.

President Carter ordered the operation to abort. It was then that the farce became a tragedy.

As the aircraft took off again, another helicopter crashed into one of the C130 aircraft and burst into flames. Eight soldiers died, and another four men suffered burns.

‘An act of war’

In Tehran there were jubilant scenes as thousands of people celebrated the failure of the mission.

The Foreign Minister, Sadeq Qotbzadeh, condemned the rescue effort as “an act of war”.

In Europe, there was shock and surprise that the mission had taken place without advance consultation of America’s allies.

EEC governments have recently agreed to threaten sanctions against Iran in the hope of preventing the use of force.

In Context
The hostage crisis marked the lowest point in the Carter presidency. It was 444 days before intense diplomatic activity secured the release of the remaining 52 hostages.The hostage crisis ended in January 1981, on the same day as Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as president.

The United States broke diplomatic relations with Iran in July 1980 over the hostage crisis.

There was a slight thawing of the frostiness between the two countries under the reformist regime which came to power in 1989.

But in 1995 the US imposed sanctions, accusing Iran of sponsoring terrorism. In early 2002, President Bush described the country as one of a global “axis of evil”.

The remark caused outrage in Iran, and the Supreme Leader, the Ayatollah Khameini, said any move towards rapprochement with the United States would be “treason and stupidity”.

Following the election of the hardliner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June 2005, Iran announced it had resumed its nuclear programme.

In April 2006 it said it had succeeded in enriching uranium. The UN Security Council has ordered it to stop.

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Images from Today’s History:

 

 

Associated Press

History Channel

Russian armies completely encircle Berlin

Resultado de imagen de Russian armies completely encircle Berlin

On this day in 1945, eight Russian armies completely encircle Berlin, linking up with the U.S. First Army patrol, first on the western bank of the Elbe, then later at Torgau. Germany is, for all intents and purposes, Allied territory.

The Allies sounded the death knell of their common enemy by celebrating. In Moscow, news of the link-up between the two armies resulted in a 324-gun salute; in New York, crowds burst into song and dance in the middle of Times Square. Among the Soviet commanders who participated in this historic meeting of the two armies was the renowned Russian Marshal Georgi K. Zhukov, who warned a skeptical Stalin as early as June 1941 that Germany posed a serious threat to the Soviet Union. Zhukov would become invaluable in battling German forces within Russia (Stalingrad and Moscow) and without. It was also Zhukov who would demand and receive unconditional surrender of Berlin from German General Krebs less than a week after encircling the German capital. At the end of the war, Zhukov was awarded a military medal of honor from Great Britain.

Guglielmo Marconi born

Imagen relacionada
Italian inventor and engineer Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) developed, demonstrated and marketed the first successful long-distance wireless telegraph and in 1901 broadcast the first transatlantic radio signal. His company’s Marconi radios ended the isolation of ocean travel and saved hundreds of lives, including all of the surviving passengers from the sinking Titanic. In 1909 he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his radio work.
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This Day in History

History Channel

1983

Andropov writes to U.S. student

samantha-smith-yuri-andropov

Yuri Andropov

Yuri Andropov General Secretary of the Comunist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)

 

On this day in 1983, the Soviet Union releases a letter that Russian leader Yuri Andropov wrote to Samantha Smith, an American fifth-grader from Manchester, Maine, inviting her to visit his country. Andropov’s letter came in response to a note Smith had sent him in December 1982, asking if the Soviets were planning to start a nuclear war. At the time, the United States and Soviet Union were Cold War enemies.

President Ronald Reagan, a passionate anti-communist, had dubbed the Soviet Union the “evil empire” and called for massive increases in U.S. defense spending to meet the perceived Soviet threat. In his public relations duel with Reagan, known as the “Great Communicator,” Andropov, who had succeeded longtime Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev in 1982, assumed a folksy, almost grandfatherly approach that was incongruous with the negative image most Americans had of the Soviets.

Samantha Smith (center) visiting the USSR upon the invitation of General Secretary of the Central Committee of CPSU Yuri Andropov in all-Union Artek pioneer camp on July 1, 1983.

Samantha Smith (center) visiting the USSR upon the invitation of General Secretary of the Central Committee of CPSU Yuri Andropov in all-Union Artek pioneer camp on July 1, 1983.

U.S._girl_Samantha_Smith_in_Artek_croppedAndropov’s letter said that Russian people wanted to “live in peace, to trade and cooperate with all our neighbors on the globe, no matter how close or far away they are, and, certainly, with such a great country as the United States of America.” In response to Smith’s question about whether the Soviet Union wished to prevent nuclear war, Andropov declared, “Yes, Samantha, we in the Soviet Union are endeavoring and doing everything so that there will be no war between our two countries, so that there will be no war at all on earth.” Andropov also complimented Smith, comparing her to the spunky character Becky Thatcher from “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain.

Smith, born June 29, 1972, accepted Andropov’s invitation and flew to the Soviet Union with her parents for a visit. Afterward, she became an international celebrity and peace ambassador, making speeches, writing a book and even landing a role on an American television series. In February 1984, Yuri Andropov died from kidney failure and was succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko. The following year, in August 1985, Samantha Smith died tragically in a plane crash at age 13.

Dear Mr. Andropov,
My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I have been worrying about Russia and the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to have a war or not? If you aren’t please tell me how you are going to help to not have a war. This question you do not have to answer, but I would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least our country. God made the world for us to live together in peace and not to fight.
Sincerely,
Samantha Smith
Dear Samantha,
I received your letter, which is like many others that have reached me recently from your country and from other countries around the world.
It seems to me – I can tell by your letter – that you are a courageous and honest girl, resembling Becky, the friend of Tom Sawyer in the famous book of your compatriot Mark Twain. This book is well known and loved in our country by all boys and girls.
You write that you are anxious about whether there will be a nuclear war between our two countries. And you ask are we doing anything so that war will not break out.
Your question is the most important of those that every thinking man can pose. I will reply to you seriously and honestly.
Yes, Samantha, we in the Soviet Union are trying to do everything so that there will not be war on Earth. This is what every Soviet man wants. This is what the great founder of our state, Vladimir Lenin, taught us.
Soviet people well know what a terrible thing war is. Forty-two years ago, Nazi Germany, which strove for supremacy over the whole world, attacked our country, burned and destroyed many thousands of our towns and villages, killed millions of Soviet men, women and children.
In that war, which ended with our victory, we were in alliance with the United States: together we fought for the liberation of many people from the Nazi invaders. I hope that you know about this from your history lessons in school. And today we want very much to live in peace, to trade and cooperate with all our neighbors on this earth — with those far away and those near by. And certainly with such a great country as the United States of America.
In America and in our country there are nuclear weapons — terrible weapons that can kill millions of people in an instant. But we do not want them to be ever used. That’s precisely why the Soviet Union solemnly declared throughout the entire world that never — never — will it use nuclear weapons first against any country. In general we propose to discontinue further production of them and to proceed to the abolition of all the stockpiles on Earth.
It seems to me that this is a sufficient answer to your second question: ‘Why do you want to wage war against the whole world or at least the United States?’ We want nothing of the kind. No one in our country–neither workers, peasants, writers nor doctors, neither grown-ups nor children, nor members of the government–want either a big or ‘little’ war.
We want peace — there is something that we are occupied with: growing wheat, building and inventing, writing books and flying into space. We want peace for ourselves and for all peoples of the planet. For our children and for you, Samantha.
I invite you, if your parents will let you, to come to our country, the best time being this summer. You will find out about our country, meet with your contemporaries, visit an international children’s camp – Artek – on the sea. And see for yourself: in the Soviet Union, everyone is for peace and friendship among peoples.
Thank you for your letter. I wish you all the best in your young life.
Y. Andropov
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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:

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 Hispanópolis:

Abril 25 se celebra…
  • Día africano del Paludismo.
Abril 25 en la Historia del Mundo …
2007 Se descubre el primer planeta extra solar mas parecido a la tierra en temperatura, tamaño y composicion
2007 Se inaugura el metro de Palma de Mallorca, el 5º de toda España.
2006 Zinedine Zidane anuncia su retirada de los campos de fútbol.
1998 Desastre de Aznalcóllar en España. Rotura de una balsa de residuos en la localidad sevillana de Aznalcóllar provocando contaminación de acuíferos y entornos naturales.
1974 Revolución de los Claveles en Portugal. El movimiento militar pone fin al régimen fascista implantado por Antonio de Oliveira Salazar en los años 20 y continuado por Marcelo Caetano.
1938 Se publica por primera vez Homenaje a Cataluña, obra de George Orwell en la que relata su propia experiencia durante la Guerra Civil española
1931 Se patenta el Cine NIC.
1926 Se estrena la obra Turandot, de Giacomo Puccini en el Teatro de La Scala.
1898 Estados Unidos declara la guerra a España tras el hundimiento del USS Maine en la bahía de La Habana (Cuba).
1859 Inicio de la construcción del Canal de Suez.
1719 Se publica la novela Robinson Crusoe de Daniel Defoe.
1707 El ejército Borbón derrota un ejército aliado austríaco en la Batalla de Almansa durante la Guerra de Sucesión española.
1362 España: Muhammad VI de Granada, usurpador del trono de Granada, muere a manos de los soldados de Pedro I aliado y amigo del legítimo monarca Muhammad V de Granada.
1242 España: Barrio de valverde, distrito de fuencarral Aparición de la virgen de valverde a unos pastores, desde entonces se realiza tradicionalente la bendición de campos y del pan y queso en la explanada de la ermita de valverde en la carretera de colmenar viejo.
0693 XVI Concilio de Toledo.
Nacimientos Notables en Abril 25 …
1988 Sara Paxton, actiz y cantante estadounidense.
1983 José María López, corredor argentino.
1981 Anja Pärson, esquiadora sueca.
1981 Felipe Massa, piloto de Fórmula 1 brasileño.
1980 Alejandro Valverde, ciclista español
1976 Rainer Schuettler, tenista alemán.
1976 Tim Duncan, jugador de baloncesto estadounidense.
1973 Fredrik Larzon, baterista sueco (Millencolin).
1970 Jason Lee, actor estadounidense.
1969 Gina Torres, actriz cubana-estadounidense.
1969 Renée Zellweger, actriz estadounidense.
1965 Eric Avery, integrante de la banda Jane’s Addiction.
1964 Andrew Ivan Bell, músico británico (Erasure).
1964 Hank Azaria, actor estadounidense.
1958 Fish, cantante escocés (ex-Marillion).
1956 Imanol Arias, actor español.
1955 Américo Gallego, ex-futbolista y entrenador argentino.
1949 Vicente Pernía, futblista argentino.
1947 Johan Cruyff, futbolista holandés.
1946 Talia Shire, actriz estadounidense.
1946 Vladímir Zhirinovsky, político ruso.
1945 Björn Ulvaeus, músico sueco (ABBA).
1945 Stu Cook, bajista estadounidense (Creedence).
1941 Bertrand Tavernier, director de cine francés.
1940 Al Pacino, actor estadounidense.
1933 Encarna Paso, actriz española.
1929 José Ángel Valente, escritor español.
1929 Paul Mazurzky, director y actor estadounidense.
1927 Albert Uderzo, dibujante francés, autor de Astérix.
1927 Corín Tellado, escritora española.
1923 Albert King, cantante estadounidense.
1921 Carel Christian Appel, pintor expresionista holandés.
1918 Ella Fitzgerald, cantante estadounidense.
1912 Federico Coullaut-Valera y Mendigutia, escultor español.
1908 Edward R. Murrow, periodista estadounidense.
1903 Andrei Nikolaievich Kolmogorov, matemático ruso.
1900 Wolfgang Pauli, físico austriaco, Premio Nobel de Física en 1945.
1888 Chojun Miyagi, artista marcial japonés.
1875 María de San José Alvarado, religiosa venezolana.
1874 Guglielmo Marconi, inventor italiano.
1857 Alejandro José Battenberg, príncipe de Bulgaria.
1857 Ruggiero Leoncavallo, compositor Italiano.
1852 Leopoldo Alas, Clarín, crítico y novelista español.
1814 Manuel Jiménez y Meléndez, torero español.
1734 José Andrés Cornide de Folgueira y Saavedra, historiador español.
1599 Oliver Cromwell, estadista inglés.
1522 Marcos Criado, religioso y santo español.
1287 Sir Roger Mortimer, octavo barón de Wigmore.
1214 Luis IX el Santo, rey de Francia (1226-1270).
Fallecimientos Notables en Abril 25 …
2009 Beatrice Arthur, actriz estadounidense (n. 1922).
2007 José Watanabe, poeta peruano.
2002 Indra Devi, practicante de yoga letón.
2002 Lisa ‘Left Eye’ Lopes, cantante estadounidense.
2002 Manuel Avello, periodista español.
2001 Michele Alboreto, piloto de Fórmula 1 italiano.
1996 Saul Bass, disenador gráfico estadounidense
1995 Ginger Rogers, actriz estadounidense.
1992 Ernesto Balducci, teólogo italiano, abanderado del catolicismo progresista.
1990 Javier Yecid Rodriguez, músico de jazz y actor colombiano
1988 Clifford D. Simak, escritor estadounidense.
1980 Alejo Carpentier, escritor y musicólogo cubano.
1976 Carol Reed, director de cine británico.
1969 Margarita Xirgú, actriz española.
1968 John Tewksbury, atleta estadounidense.
1940 Juan Franco, político portugués.
1911 Emilio Salgari, novelista italiano.
1853 William Beaumont, cirujano estadounidense.
1806 Rana Bahadur Shah, Rey de Nepal, cae muerto a manos de su medio hermano Sher Bahadur.
1744 Anders Celsius, astrónomo y físico sueco.
1675 Pierre Perrin, creador de la ópera francesa.
1667 San Pedro de San José Betancur; religioso español.
1595 Torquato Tasso, poeta italiano.
1566 Louise Labé, poetisa francesa.
1472 Leon Battista Alberti, arquitecto y escritor italiano.
1295 Sancho IV de León y Castilla, el Bravo, rey de Castilla.
1185 Emperador Antoku, Emperador de Japón
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History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1983 Andropov writes to U.S. student
  • American Revolution

  • 1781 Cornwallis retreats from Guilford Courthouse
  • Automotive

  • 2001 Italian Formula One driver dies in crash
  • Civil War

  • 1864 Confederates overwhelm Union at Marks’ Mills
  • Cold War

  • 1983 Andropov writes to an American fifth-grader
  • Crime

  • 1989 A father is exonerated after 21 years
  • Disaster

  • 1980 Air tragedy hits Canary Islands
  • General Interest

  • 1859 Ground broken for Suez Canal
  • 1990 Space telescope in orbit
  • Hollywood

  • 1995 Ginger Rogers dies
  • Literary

  • 1719 Robinson Crusoe is published
  • Music

  • 1917 Ella Fitzgerald is born
  • Old West

  • 1831 A play lionizing Davy Crockett opens
  • Presidential

  • 1947 Truman inaugurates White House bowling alley
  • Sports

  • 1964 Maple Leafs win third Stanley Cup in a row
  • Vietnam War

  • 1964 Johnson announces appointment of Westmoreland
  • 1972 North Vietnamese Army close to cutting South Vietnam in two
  • World War I

  • 1915 Allies begin invasion of Gallipoli
  • World War II

  • 1945 Americans and Russians link up, cut Germany in two

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 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia


Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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