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Abril 21 en la historia:

Rome founded; Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin; Writer Mark Twain dies; Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II born; German flying ace Manfred ‘The Red Baron’ Rictoften killed in action during World War I; The musical ‘Annie’ opens on Broadway.

Hoy en la Historia – Today in History

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred

Resultado de imagen de Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin

Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin

Red Army soldiers raise Red Flag over Reichstag, taken 30 April 1945

Red Army soldiers raise Red Flag over Reichstag, taken 30 April 1945

Russian troops have captured some outlying suburbs of Berlin at the beginning of what promises to be a bitter battle for control of the city.

The Red Army approached the German capital from three directions, north, east and south-east. The northeastern suburb of Weissensee is the closest to the centre being only three miles away.

The Nazi minister of propaganda, Josef Goebbels, has issued a statement saying Berlin will be defended to the last.

He said anyone who showed cowardice, hoisted the white flag or attempted sabotage would be treated as outlaws.

The Russians were advancing and all POW camps were being evacuated
People’s War memories »

The Germans are understood to be terrified of what might happen to them if Berlin falls into Soviet hands. Since 1941 Nazi forces have laid waste to large parts of the Soviet Union.

The Soviet troops under Marshal Georgi Zhukov are pushing towards Berlin from the north and east and Marshal Ivan Konev and his forces from the south. They are both keen to achieve the honour of capturing Berlin, the heart of the Nazi movement.

American forces are also pushing towards Berlin from the west and are now said to be only hours away from joining up with Russian troops.

Reports from Berlin say shells have begun to fall in the centre of the city. Correspondents say they have been fired from southern positions taking the Germans by surprise. They had been expecting Marshal Konev’s forces to press on towards Prague and Dresden.

Imagen relacionada

Women in the ruins of Berlin (1945)

The Russian advance has been supported by its air force. Although the weather has been poor it has not stopped its low-level attack aircraft, the Stormoviks, sweeping the enemy lines and the improved Soviet dive-bombers are also halting counter-attacks.

The final assault on Berlin began on the night of 15/16 April when Soviet forces launched a powerful artillery barrage against the German forces dug in west of the Oder River and to the east of the city in an area known as the Seelow Heights.

Resultado de imagen de Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin

A German military spokesman said they were attacking under what he called a permanent “air umbrella” with “fresh Soviet troops coming forward as though on a conveyor belt.”

After two days of fighting and failing to make any significant breakthrough at Seelow, however, Marshal Konev’s forces were ordered south and Marshal Zhukov’s to the north thus bypassing the German 9th Army at Seelow and surrounding Berlin.

Hitler is reported to have celebrated his birthday yesterday in his underground bunker in the city, cut off from the reality of the fighting above his head.

Reports say Marshal Konev’s forces to the south of Berlin have taken more than 10,000 prisoners in the past four days. They also claim to have captured 96 aircraft and more than 150 tanks and self-propelled guns.

Marshal Zhukov’s troops, heading from the north and east, claim to have taken more than 13,000 prisoners. They have captured 60 aircraft and more than 100 tanks and self-propelled guns.

But in their haste to capture Berlin many Soviet soldiers have also been killed and tanks lost.

In Context

Hitler ordered a counter attack. But the Wehrmacht’s 9th Army was cut off by Marshall Konev’s forces in the forest south of Berlin, near the small town of Halbe.Over 50,000 soldiers and civilians died. Their bodies were left piled high beside the narrow paths in the forest.

The Red Army meanwhile pressed on into the heart of Berlin. Zhukov’s and Konev’s troops were still racing to be first to capture the city and in their haste many lives appear to have been needlessly lost.

Figures vary but one source says the battle for Berlin cost the Red Army some 70,000 troops.

They used tanks to force their way into the city but these were very vulnerable to Germans firing bazookas from destroyed buildings. Ultimately, however, the German forces, mostly made up of old people and members of Hitler Youth were no match for the Soviet forces.

As the Red Army took control it also wreaked revenge on the people of Berlin. Hospital records suggest some 100,000 women were raped in Berlin in the last six months of the war.

Hitler and his mistress Eva Braun committed suicide in his bunker on 30 April only hours after they were married.

By 2 May the old German parliament building, the Reichstag, had fallen. Marshal Zhukov claimed the honour of being Berlin’s conqueror.

Imagen relacionada


Images from Today’s History:


Associated Press

History Channel

Rome founded_2

Rome founded_1


This Day in History

History Channel

Rome founded_5Rome founded_6

History Channel Lead Story:

753 B.C.

Romulus and Remus as babies found by a shepherd

Rome founded

Rome founded_4According to tradition, on April 21, 753 B.C., Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they were suckled by a she-wolf as orphaned infants. Actually, the Romulus and Remus myth originated sometime in the fourth century B.C., and the exact date of Rome’s founding was set by the Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro in the first century B.C.

According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, the daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa. Alba Longa was a mythical city located in the Alban Hills southeast of what would become Rome. Before the birth of the twins, Numitor was deposed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become a vestal virgin so that she would not give birth to rival claimants to his title. However, Rhea was impregnated by the war god Mars and gave birth to Romulus and Remus. Amulius ordered the infants drowned in the Tiber, but they survived and washed ashore at the foot of the Palatine hill, where they were suckled by a she-wolf until they were found by the shepherd Faustulus.

Rome founded_3Reared by Faustulus and his wife, the twins later became leaders of a band of young shepherd warriors. After learning their true identity, they attacked Alba Longa, killed the wicked Amulius, and restored their grandfather to the throne. The twins then decided to found a town on the site where they had been saved as infants. They soon became involved in a petty quarrel, however, and Remus was slain by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named “Rome” after him.

To populate his town, Romulus offered asylum to fugitives and exiles. Rome lacked women, however, so Romulus invited the neighboring Sabines to a festival and abducted their women. A war then ensued, but the Sabine women intervened to prevent the Sabine men from seizing Rome. A peace treaty was drawn up, and the communities merged under the joint rule of Romulus and the Sabine king, Titus Tatius. Tatius’ early death, perhaps perpetrated by Romulus, left the Roman as the sole king again. After a long and successful rule, Romulus died under obscure circumstances. Many Romans believed he was changed into a god and worshipped him as the deity Quirinus. After Romulus, there were six more kings of Rome, the last three believed to be Etruscans. Around 509 B.C., the Roman republic was established.

Another Roman foundation legend, which has its origins in ancient Greece, tells of how the mythical Trojan Aeneas founded Lavinium and started a dynasty that would lead to the birth of Romulus and Remus several centuries later. In the Iliad, an epic Greek poem probably composed by Homer in the eighth century B.C., Aeneas was the only major Trojan hero to survive the Greek destruction of Troy. A passage told of how he and his descendants would rule the Trojans, but since there was no record of any such dynasty in Troy, Greek scholars proposed that Aeneas and his followers relocated.

In the fifth century B.C., a few Greek historians speculated that Aeneas settled at Rome, which was then still a small city-state. In the fourth century B.C., Rome began to expand within the Italian peninsula, and Romans, coming into greater contact with the Greeks, embraced the suggestion that Aeneas had a role in the foundation of their great city. In the first century B.C., the Roman poet Virgil developed the Aeneas myth in his epic poem the Aeneid, which told of Aeneas’ journey to Rome. Augustus, the first Roman emperor and emperor during Virgil’s time, and Julius Caesar, his great-uncle and predecessor as Roman ruler, were said to be descended from Aeneas.



Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:

753 a.C. Fecha tradicional de la fundación de Roma. Rómulo funda la ciudad pese a la oposición de su hermano Remo, al que asesina.

1211 En Galicia, el arzobispo Pedro Muñiz consagra la catedral de Santiago de Compostela.

1483 En la batalla de Lucena (Córdoba), Boabdil, el rey de Granada, es hecho prisionero.(imagen dch)

1486 Fernando el Católico firma la Sentencia arbitral de Guadalupe, por la que pone fin a la situación de servidumbre de los Payeses de Remensa en Cataluña.

1503 En el transcurso de la Guerra de Nápoles (1501-1504), las tropas de la Corona de Castilla y Aragón derrotan a las francesas en la batalla de Seminara.

1509 Enrique VIII asciende al trono de Inglaterra a la muerte de su padre, Enrique VII.

1594 La aldea de San Salvador, la actual capital de El Salvador que en esa época tenía pocos cientos de habitantes, sufre el tercero de sus numerosos macrosismos, siendo los anteriores fueron en 1575 y 1584, que la destruye totalmente.

1691 En Colombia, la ciudad de Cartago es trasladada al lugar donde se encuentra en la actualidad por los continuos ataques de los pijao.(imagen izq)

1792 En Brasil, los portugueses ahorcan a Tiradentes, un líder revolucionario que dirige un movimiento popular para conseguir independizarse de Portugal.

1831 En Limarí (Chile) se funda la aldea de Ovalle (actual ciudad capital de esa provincia).

1863 En el jardín de Ridván (Bagdad, Irak) Bajaulá anuncia públicamente su misión. Los bajaís lo celebran como un día sagrado que inicia el Festival de Rizván.

1898 El Congreso de los Estados Unidos declara la guerra contra España.

1914 En el puerto de Veracruz (México), Estados Unidos comienza la invasión a México. Véase segunda intervención estadounidense en México.

1918 Cerca del río Somme, situado en el norte de Francia, el piloto alemán de la Primera Guerra Mundial El Barón Rojo (Manfred von Richthofen) es derribado y muere.

1937 En Chile se funda el Club Deportivo Universidad Católica.

1941 En el Pozo Calero de Barruelo de Santullán (imagen dch), situado en la cuenca minera palentina (España), 18 mineros resultan muertos a consecuencia de una explosión de grisú.

1944 En Francia las mujeres consiguen el sufragio femenino.

1951 En el atolón Enewetak se produce la operación Greenhouse, donde Estados Unidos detona la bomba atómica Easy (de 47 kilotones), la decimoquinta de la Historia humana.

1960 En Brasil se funda Brasilia, actual capital del país.

1967 Días después de las elecciones generales griegas, el coronel Georgios Papadópoulos lidera un golpe de estado y establece un régimen militar (la Dictadura de los Coroneles) que dura 7 años.

1997 España lanza el satélite Minisat 1.(imagen izq)

2005 En España, el Congreso de los Diputados aprueba por primera vez el proyecto de ley que legaliza el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo.



Abril 21 se celebra…
  • centenario de la muerte de Mark Twain.
Abril 21 en la Historia del Mundo …
0753 B.C. Fecha tradicional de la fundación de Roma. Rómulo funda la ciudad con la oposición de su hermano Remo, al que asesina.
2004 Corea del Norte: Dos trenes cargados de combustible colisionan en Ryongchon matando a más de 150 personas e hiriendo a 1.300.
2002 México: El gobierno mexicano se enfrenta diplomáticamente con el gobierno de Cuba por primera vez en la historia desde el triunfo de la Revolución Cubana, llevando a un rompimento de relaciones entre las dos naciones.
1997 Perú: Liberación de los rehenes en la toma de la embajada de Japón en Lima, por el Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru (MRTA).
1993 Internet: Aparece la versión 1.0 del navegador Mosaic.
1992 México: Violentas explosiones ocurren en el sector Reforma en la Ciudad de Guadalajara; debido a un derrame de combustible en el drenaje. Casi 8 kilómetros llenos de viviendas desaparecen y hasta hoy el número de muertos se desconoce.
1960 Fundación de Brasilia, capital administrativa de Brasil.
1944 Las mujeres en Francia consiguen el derecho al voto
1914 Segunda Invasión de los Estados Unidos a Mexico, desembarcando en el puerto de Veracruz.
1863 Bahá’u’lláh anuncia públicamente Su misión en el jardín de Ridván, Bagdad.
1831 Fundación de Ovalle, ciudad capital de la Provincia de Limarí, Chile.
1792 Tiradentes, un líder revolucionario que dirige un movimiento popular para conseguir la independencia de Brasil, es condenado y ejecutado en la horca.
1509 Enrique VIII asciende al trono de Inglaterra a la muerte de su padre, Enrique VII
1486 España: Fernando el Católico firma la Sentencia arbitral de Guadalupe por la que pone fin a la situación de servidumbre de los Payeses de Remensa en Cataluña
1483 España: En la batalla de Lucena (Córdoba), Boabdil, rey de Granada, es hecho prisionero.
1211 El arzobispo Pedro Muñiz consagra la catedral de Santiago de Compostela
0000 Conmemoración de la Fundación de Roma
0000 Día Sagrado del calendario Badí. Primer día del Festival de Ridván (21 abril – 2 mayo) en conmemoración del anuncio de Bahá’u’lláh
Nacimientos Notables en Abril 21 …
1991 Costa Rica: Terremoto en Limón Un terremoto de 7.6 en la Escala de Richter, sacude la ciudad de Limón, levantó la plataforma continental y hubo daños en carreteras y lineas férreas. Murieron 50 personas.
1989 SXB, buscadora de éter en el Mercadona.
1978 – “A-ba-ni-bi” de Izhar Cohen & The Alpha-Beta gana por Israel la XXIII Edición de Eurovisión celebrada en París.
1978 Branden Steineckert, músico estadounidense (Rancid, The Used).
1978 Jukka Nevalainen, baterista de la banda finlandesa Nightwish
1977 Martín Marini, músico de rock argentino (Eucrasia).
1972 José Luis Munuera, dibujante español (Spirou).
1970 se celebra el primer Día de la Tierra.
1963 John Cameron Mitchell, escritor, actor y director de cine estadounidense.
1959 Jerry Only, cantante estadounidense (The Misfits).
1959 Robert Smith, guitarrista, vocalista y compositor del grupo inglés The Cure.
1958 Andie MacDowell, actriz estadounidense.
1954 James Morrison, actor estadounidense.
1951 Michael Hartley Freedman, matemático estadounidense.
1951 Tony Danza, actor estadounidense.
1947 Iggy Pop, cantante estadounidense.
1947 John Weider, musico británico (The Animals).
1930 Silvana Mangano, actriz italiana.
1926 Isabel II, reina de Gran Bretaña.
1923 España: El rey Alfonso XIII de España otorga a Pozoblanco el título de ciudad.
1917 María Isbert, actriz española.
1915 Anthony Quinn, actor, director, y productor de cine mexicano-estadounidense.
1915 Bélgica/Ypres: Alemania utiliza por primera vez en la historia gas venenoso en su ofensiva.
1907 Enrique Líster, militar y político español.
1892 Argentina: Fundación de la ciudad de Santa Rosa.
1889 Manuel Prado y Ugarteche, presidente del Perú (1939-1945 y 1956-1962).
1889 Paul Karrer, químico suizo, premio Nobel de Química en 1937.
1882 Percy Williams Bridgman, físico estadounidense, premio Nobel de Física en 1946.
1870 Edwin S. Porter, director de cine estadounidense.
1864 Max Weber, economista, político y sociólogo alemán.
1855 España: La reina Isabel II firma una ley por la que decreta la creación de la primera red electrotelegráfica española.
1838 John Muir, naturalista estadounidense.
1837 Fredrik Bajer, escritor y pacifista danés, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1908.
1816 Charlotte Brontë, autor Inglaterra.
1779 Argentina/Virreinato del Río de la Plata: Fundación de las ciudades de Viedma y Carmen de Patagones por el navegante Francisco de Viedma y Narváez.
1774 Jean Baptiste Biot, físico, astrónomo y matemático francés.
1671 John Law, economista escocés.
1652 Michel Rolle, matemático francés.
1555 Ludovico Carracci, pintor italiano.
1529 Tratado de Zaragoza por el que España y Portugal se dividen america en una línea imaginaria situada a 17º este de las islas Molucas
1519 Hernán Cortés desembarca cerca de la actual Veracruz
1509 Enrique VIII asciende al trono de Inglaterra tras la muerte de su padre.
1500 El navegante portugués Pedro Alvares Cabral llega a Brasil.
1281 España/Castilla: Tropas combinadas de Alfonso X, el sultán mariní Abu Yusuf y los Banu Ashqilula atacan el reino de Granada.
Fallecimientos Notables en Abril 21 …
2008 Monna Bell, cantante chilena (n. 1938).
2006 El Presidente de Iraq Yalal Talabani propone formalmente la candidatura de Nuri Al Maliki al cargo de Primer Ministro del país; el Consejo de Representantes debe aprobar o rechazar la candidatura.
2004 Alberto Rivera Fernández, presidente de la Federación de Periodistas de Perú.
2003 Nina Simone, cantante estadounidense.
2002 Patxi Iturrioz, político vasco.
1984 Amelle Berrabah, cantante inglesa (Sugababes).
1982 Kaká, futbolista brasileño.
1981 Marta Larralde, actriz española.
1980 Carlos Hernández, beisbolista venezolano.
1979 Daniel Johns, músico australiano (Silverchair).
1978 Esteban Tuero, automovilista argentino.
1978 Jason Stollsteimer, cantante estadounidense (The Von Bondies).
1977 Aaron Fink, guitarrista del grupo Breaking Benjamin.
1977 Gummo Marx, actor estadounidense.
1977 Mark van Bommel, futbolista holándes.
1975 Carlos Sastre, ciclista español.
1975 Greg Moore, piloto de coches de carreras canadiense.
1974 Shavo Odadjian, bajista armenio-estadounidense (System of a Down).
1971 François Duvalier, dictador de Haití.
1970 Regine Velasquez, cantante y actriz filipina.
1966 Josef Dietrich, general alemán de las Waffen-SS.
1965 Mariana Levy, actriz mexicana.
1951 Ana María Shua, escritora argentina.
1950 Peter Frampton, músico británico.
1948 Carlos López Buchardo, compositor argentino.
1946 John Waters, director de cine estadounidense.
1944 Steve Fossett, aventurero estadounidense.
1939 Jason Miller, actor estadounidense.
1937 Jack Nicholson, actor estadounidense.
1936 Glen Campbell, cantante estadounidense.
1935 Fiorenza Cossotto, mezzosoprano italiana.
1929 Guillermo Cabrera Infante, escritor cubano.
1927 Laurel Aitken, músico cubano.
1926 James Stirling, arquitecto británico.
1923 Aaron Spelling, productor de series de televisión estadounidense.
1923 Bettie Page, modelo estadounidense.
1922 Charles Mingus, músico estadounidense.
1919 Donald James Cram, químico estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Química en 1987.
1918 Manfred von Richthofen, el Barón Rojo, aviador militar alemán.
1916 Yehudi Menuhin, violinista estadounidense, nacionalizado británico.
1912 Kathleen Ferrier, cantante británica.
1910 Mark Twain, escritor estadounidense.
1909 Indro Montanelli, escritor y periodista italiano.
1909 Rita Levi-Montalcini, neuróloga italiana, Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1986.
1906 Gustavo Adolfo, duque de Västerbotten, príncipe de Suecia.
1904 María Zambrano, filósofa y ensayista española.
1904 Robert Oppenheimer, físico estadounidense.
1899 Vladimir Nabokov, escritor ruso.
1884 Otto Rank, psicoanalista austríaco.
1881 Alexander Kerensky, político soviétco.
1876 Robert Bárány, médico austríaco, Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1914.
1870 Lenin, dirigente comunista ruso (equivalente al día 10 de abril del Calendario juliano, que era el usado en Rusia en aquella época).
1854 Henri La Fontaine, político belga, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1913.
1852 Guillermo IV, Gran Duque de Luxemburgo.
1840 Odilon Redon, pintor francés.
1766 Madame de Staël, escritora francesa.
1757 Francisco Javier Castaños, militar español.
1731 Daniel Defoe, novelista británico.
1724 Immanuel Kant, destacado filósofo alemán.
1707 Henry Fielding, novelista y dramaturgo inglés.
1699 Jean Racine, dramaturgo francés.
1610 Papa Alejandro VIII.
1569 Hernán Ruiz Jiménez “Hernán Ruiz II”, arquitecto español.
1552 Petrus Apianus, matemático y astrónomo alemán.
1451 Isabel I, la católica, reina de Castilla.
1142 Pierre Abelard, filósofo y escritor francés.
1109 Anselmo de Canterbury, arzobispo de Canterbury y teólogo escolástico.


History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 753 B.C. Rome founded
  • American Revolution

  • 1777 British attack Danbury, Connecticut
  • Automotive

  • 1967 GM celebrates 100 millionth U.S.-made car
  • Civil War

  • 1863 Steight’s Raid begins
  • Cold War

  • 1953 Roy Cohn and David Schine return to U.S.
  • Crime

  • 1992 Executions resume in California
  • Disaster

  • 1930 Prisoners left to burn in Ohio fire
  • General Interest

  • 1836 The Battle of San Jacinto
  • 1918 Red Baron killed in action
  • 1989 Chinese students begin protests at Tiananmen Square
  • Hollywood

  • 1895 First movie projector demonstrated in United States
  • Literary

  • 1816 Charlotte Bronte born
  • Music

  • 1973 “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Old Oak Tree” tops the U.S. pop charts and creates a cultural phenomenon.
  • Old West

  • 1838 Naturalist John Muir is born
  • Presidential

  • 1865 Lincoln’s funeral train leaves D.C.
  • Sports

  • 1980 Rosie Ruiz fakes Boston Marathon win
  • Vietnam War

  • 1965 Intelligence reveals North Vietnamese units in South Vietnam
  • 1975 Thieu flees Saigon as Xuan Loc falls
  • World War I

  • 1918 Red Baron killed in action
  • World War II

  • 1945 Red Army overruns German High Command as it approaches the capital


 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia

Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 


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