Abril 16 en la historia: | bambinoides.com

Abril 16 en la historia:

‘Great Train Robbers’ get 300 years;  Virginia Tech shooting kills 32; Country’s deadliest industrial accident; Communist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin returns to Russia; Movie legend Charlie Chaplin born; Rolling Stone release debut album; Michael Jordan plays last NBA game.

Hoy en la Historia – Today in History

BBC’s In Context:

Written as if the event had only just occurred

1964:

‘Great Train Robbers’ get 300 years

Photograph of train-robber Bruce Reynolds

Ringleader Bruce Reynolds has so far evaded capture

Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called “Great Train Robbery”.

Sentences totalling 307 years were passed on 12 men who stole £2.6m in used bank notes after holding up the night mail train travelling from Glasgow to London last August.

The judge at Buckinghamshire Assizes in Aylesbury, Mr Justice Edmund Davies, said it would be “positively evil” if he showed leniency.

The robbery was the biggest-ever carried out in Britain.

The scale and style of the theft led to comparisons with rail robberies of the Wild West and the hunt for the perpetrators captured the public imagination.

But the judge said the robbers’ crime had in no way been “romantic” and was obviously motivated by greed.

The attack on train driver Jack Mills was proof of their violent tendencies, he added.

“Anybody who has seen that nerve-shattered engine driver can have no doubt of the terrifying effect on law-abiding citizens of a concerted assault by armed robbers,” the judge said.

Ringleader

Seven of the defendants – Ronald Biggs, Charles Wilson, Douglas Goody, Thomas Wisbey, Robert Welch, James Hussey and Roy James – were jailed for 30 years each.

Four were sent to prison for terms of between 20 and 25 years.

Another defendant, solicitor John Wheater, 41, was sent to prison for three years.

Wheater obtained the robbers hide-out – Leatherslade Farm in Bedfordshire.

Judge Davies said Wheater had no knowledge of the robbery until after it had been committed but should then have informed the police.

“I realise the consequences of your conviction are disastrous, professionally and personally,” the judge told Wheater.

Three men involved in the robbery are still at large including the man said to be the ringleader, Bruce Reynolds.

In Context

All the three remaining gang members were eventually caught.In 1969 the robbery’s mastermind, Bruce Reynolds, was sentenced to 10 years in jail.

In the meantime two gang members had made dramatic escapes from prison.

One of them, Charlie Wilson, was recaptured in Canada in 1968.

The other, Ronnie Biggs, was free for nearly 40 years before he returned voluntarily to Britain from Brazil.

An impoverished Biggs, 71, came back to the UK in 2001 to receive free medical treatment after having suffered a series of strokes.

He was immediately taken to a top-security prison to serve the remaining 28 years of his sentence.

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Images from Today’s History:

 

Associated Press

History Channel

 

In the 1940s, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffmann discovered the mind-altering properties of LSD, a semi-synthetic drug derived from a fungus.

Hallucinogenic effects of LSD discovered in Basel, Switzerland, In the 1940s, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffmann discovered the mind-altering properties of LSD, a semi-synthetic drug derived from a fungus.

Hallucinogenic effects of LSD discovered in Basel, Switzerland,

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This Day in History

History Channel

1943

lsd_2


LSD, and the constituents of ololiuqui as well as the active principles of the hallucinogenic mushrooms psilocybin …

Albert Hofmann holding an LSD molecule model

Albert Hofmann

Hallucinogenic effects of LSD discovered

In Basel, Switzerland, Albert Hoffman, a Swiss chemist working at the Sandoz pharmaceutical research laboratory, accidentally consumes LSD-25, a synthetic drug he had created in 1938 as part of his research into the medicinal value of lysergic acid compounds. After taking the drug, formally known as lysergic acid diethylamide, Dr. Hoffman was disturbed by unusual sensations and hallucinations. In his notes, he related the experience:

“Last Friday, April 16, 1943, I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant, intoxicated-like condition characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away.”

lsd-albert-hoffman_3

Albert Hofmann holding an LSD molecule model

After intentionally taking the drug again to confirm that it had caused this strange physical and mental state, Dr. Hoffman published a report announcing his discovery, and so LSD made its

entry into the world as a hallucinogenic drug. Widespread use of the so-called “mind-expanding” drug did not begin until the 1960s, when counterculture figures such as Albert M. Hubbard, Timothy Leary, and Ken Kesey publicly expounded on the benefits of using LSD as a recreational drug. The manufacture, sale, possession, and use of LSD, known to cause negative reactions in some of those who take it, were made illegal in the United States in 1965.

 

 

 

1973

Massacre at Virginia Tech leaves 32 dead

On this day in 2007, in one of the deadliest shootings in U.S. history, 32 students and teachers die after being gunned down on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University by Seung Hui Cho, a student at the school who later dies from a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

Resultado de imagen de Massacre at Virginia Tech leaves 32 dead

The violence began around 7:15 a.m., when Cho, a 23-year-old senior and English major at Blacksburg-based Virginia Tech, shot a female freshman and a male resident assistant in a campus dormitory before fleeing the building. Police were soon on the scene; unaware of the gunman’s identity, they initially pursued the female victim’s boyfriend as a suspect in what they believed to be an isolated domestic-violence incident. However, at around 9:40 a.m., Cho, armed with a 9-millimeter handgun, a 22-caliber handgun and hundreds of rounds of ammunition, entered a classroom building, chained and locked several main doors and went from room to room shooting people. Approximately 10 minutes after the rampage began, he committed suicide. The attack left 30 people dead and another 17 wounded. In all, 27 students and five faculty members died as a result of Cho’s actions.

Two days later, on April 18, NBC News received a package of materials from Cho with a time stamp indicating he had mailed it from a Virginia post office between the first and second shooting attacks. Contained in the package were photos of a gun-wielding Cho, along with a rambling video diatribe in which he ranted about wealthy “brats,” among other topics.

In the aftermath of the massacre, authorities found no evidence that Cho, who was born in South Korea and moved to America with his family in 1992, had specifically targeted any of his victims. The public soon learned that Cho, described by ex-classmates as a loner who rarely spoke to anyone, had a history of mental-health problems. It was also revealed that angry, violent writings Cho made for certain class assignments had raised concern among some of his former professors and fellow students well before the events of April 16.

In 2011, Virginia Tech was fined by the U.S. Department of Education for failing to issue a prompt campus-wide warning after Cho shot his first two victims. School officials sent an email notification about the dorm shooting to students and faculty at 9:26 that morning. According to the Department of Education, the message was vague and did not indicate there had been a murder or that the gunman was still at large.

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo / Efemérides

 Istopia Historia:

EFEMÉRIDES 16 DE ABRIL

1178 a E.C. Sucede un eclipse solar. Según algunos autores, podría marcar el retorno de Odiseo (el legendario rey de la isla de Ítaca) a su reino.
1503 En la costa de Veraguas (Panamá), Cristóbal Colón regresa a España en su cuarto y último viaje, abandonando Santa María de Belén (la primera aldea española en territorio continental americano, que aún hoy sigue deshabitada). Diez días antes, los nativos (indignados por los secuestros de que han sido víctimas) realizaron un ataque.
1519 En Barcelona Carlos I de España es jurado Rey ante las Cortes Catalanas.
1531 En México se funda la aldea de Puebla de los Ángeles (actual Puebla).
1540 Sobre la localidad de Choquesaca (capital de la nación de los charcas), el español Peranzúrez funda la Villa de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo (actual Sucre, capital administrativa de Bolivia).
1568 En Granada (España) los moriscos se alzan en armas, muy descontentos con las medidas adoptadas por Pedro Deza, presidente de la Chancillería (imag. dch)
1582 En el sur del Virreinato del Perú (actualmente Argentina) se funda la Ciudad de Salta.
1610 Lope de Vega firma y fecha su obra teatral La buena guarda.
1746 A 10 km al este de Inverness (Escocia, el ejército británico vence a los jacobitas en la batalla de Culloden)
1780 En Münster (Renania del Norte-Westfalia, Alemania) se funda la Universidad de Münster (en alemán, WWU: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität).
1812 En Hontoria de Valdearados los guerrilleros del cura Merino apresan el batallón 1.º del Regimiento del Vístula.
1818 En El Rincón de los Toros (Venezuela), el oficial español Mariano Renovales (imag. izq) intenta asesinar a Simón Bolívar.
1838 Entre Francia y México comienza la Guerra de los pasteles.
1917 En Rusia Lenin regresa a Petrogrado (ahora llamado San Petersburgo) desde su destierro en Finlandia.
1919 En India, Mahatma Gandhi anuncia un «día de oración y ayuno» en respuesta a la masacre de Amritsar.
1943 En EE. UU., el doctor Albert Hofmann descubre los efectos sicodélicos de la droga LSD.
1945 En la ciudad de Berlín , ocurre la Batalla de Berlín
1961 En La Habana (Cuba), Fidel Castro devela al mundo el carácter socialista de la Revolución cubana (1959). En los siguientes días, el presidente J. F. Kennedy intentará una Invasión de Bahía Cochinos invasión estadounidense]] a la isla, que será rechazado exitosamente.
1984 En Buenos Aires se funda la CHA (Comunidad Homosexual Argentina), la primera ONG de minorías sexuales del país.

1989
 En Uruguay se realiza un plebiscito que buscaba dejar sin efecto la Ley de Caducidad; la ciudadanía cofirma su vigencia.
1995 En Estados Unidos, George W. Bush (gobernador de Texas y más tarde presidente de EE. UU.) (imag. dch.), nombra este día como «Día de Selena».
2003 En Filadelfia, Michael Jordan se retira del baloncesto
2004 En España, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero es investido presidente.
2007 En Blacksburg (EE. UU.), un joven mata a 32 personas en el campus de la Universidad Técnica de Virginia. Es la mayor matanza en una universidad.

 Hispanópolis:

Abril 16 en la Historia del Mundo …
2007 Un joven mata a 32 personas en el campus de la Universidad Técnica de Virginia, en Blacksburg (EEUU) con un arma de fuego pasando a ser la mayor matanza en una universidad en EEUU.
1943 El doctor Albert Hofmann descubre los efectos psicodélicos de la droga LSD.
1919 Gandhi anuncia un día de “oración y ayuno” en respuesta a la Matanza de Amritsar (India).
1917 Lenin regresa a Petrogrado (ahora llamado San Petersburgo, Rusia) desde su destierro en Finlandia.
1838 comienza la Guerra de los pasteles, conflicto bélico entre Francia y México.
1780 La Universidad de Münster (en alemán: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität (WWU)) fue fundada (Münster, Renania del Norte-Westfalia, Alemania).
1568 España: Los moriscos de Granada se alzan en armas, muy descontentos con las medidas adoptadas por Pedro Deza, presidente de la Chancillería.
1531 Fundación de la ciudad de Puebla, en México.
Nacimientos Notables en Abril 16 …
2008 Leonor de Bélgica, princesa belga.
1987 Aaron Lennon, futbolista inglés.
1985 Benjamín Rojas, actor y cantante argentino.
1985 Luol Deng, jugador de baloncesto británico de origen sudanés.
1982 Boris Diaw, jugador de baloncesto francés.
1980 Paul London, luchador profesional estadounidense.
1979 Christijan Albers, automovilista holandés.
1977 Fredrik Ljungberg, futbolista sueco.
1973 Bonnie Pink, cantante, instrumentalista y compositora japonesa.
1972 Conchita Martínez, tenista española.
1971 Selena, cantante méxico-estadounidense.
1962 Ian MacKaye, músico estadounidense, (Fugazi, Minor Threat)
1960 Pierre Littbarski, ex-futbolista alemán.
1960 Rafael Benítez, entrenador de fútbol español.
1958 Javier Sardá, presentador de televisión español.
1954 Ellen Barkin, actriz estadounidense.
1953 Peter Garrett, músico australiano (Midnight Oil).
1952 Billy West, actor de voz estadounidense.
1952 Michel Blanc, actor y director francés.
1947 Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, jugador de baloncesto estadounidense.
1942 Frank Williams, fundador y mánager del equipo WilliamsF1.
1940 Javier Adúriz, poeta argentino.
1940 Margarita II, reyna de Dinamarca.
1930 Herbie Mann, flautista de jazz estadounidense.
1927 Papa Benedicto XVI.
1924 Henry Mancini, compositor de música de cine estadounidense.
1922 Kingsley Amis, novelista y poeta inglés.
1921 Peter Ustinov, actor británico.
1896 Tristan Tzara, ensayista y poeta rumano.
1893 Federico Mompou, compositor español.
1889 Charlie Chaplin, actor y director de cine británico.
1886 Ernst Thälmann, político alemán.
1885 Leó Weiner, compositor y profesor húngaro.
1871 John Millington Synge, dramaturgo irlandés.
1867 Wilbur Wright pionero de la aeronáutica.
1866 José de Diego, escritor, peridista y político puertorriqueño.
1852 Francisco Valladar Serrano, periodista español.
1844 Anatole France, escritor francés, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1921.
1838 Ernest Solvay, químico belga.
1823 Ferdinand Eisenstein, matemático alemán.
1821 Ford Madox Brown, pintor inglés.
1728 Joseph Black, físico y químico británico.
1682 John Hadley, matemático y astrónomo inglés.
1660 Hans Sloane, médico y coleccionista irlandés.
1646 Jules Hardouin Mansart, arquitecto francés.
1495 Petrus Apianus, matemático y astrónomo alemán.
Fallecimientos Notables en Abril 16 …
2009 Eduardo Rózsa,supuesto mercenario boliviano (n. 1960).
2009 José el Camborio, bailarín y coreógrafo italiano (n. 1939).
2009 Raumar Jude, político uruguayo (n. 1929).
2008 Edward Lorenz, matemático y meteorólogo estadounidense (n. 1917).
2007 Liviu Librescu, científico israelí-estadounidense, asesinado en la Masacre de Virginia Tech.
1991 David Lean, director de cine británico.
1973 Nino Bravo, cantautor español.
1972 Yasunari Kawabata, novelista japonés, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1968.
1970 Richard Neutra, arquitecto austríaco-estadounidense.
1968 Fay Bainter, actriz estadounidense.
1958 Rosalind Franklin, biologa molecular británica.
1947 Rudolf Hoess, comandante del campo de Auschwitz.
1930 José Carlos Mariátegui, fundador del Partido Socialista peruano
1879 Santa Bernadette Soubirous, religiosa francesa.
1859 Alexis de Tocqueville, político e historiador francés.
1846 Domenico Dragonetti, compositor y contrabajista italiano.
1689 Aphra Behn, escritora y espía británica.
1640 Carlos-Jacinto de Urriés y Monleón, XII Señor Ayerbe.
0069 Otón, emperador romano
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History Channel: 

“Also on this Day”

  • Lead Story

  • 1943 Hallucinogenic effects of LSD discovered
  • American Revolution

  • 1738 General Sir Henry Clinton is born
  • Automotive

  • 1946 Arthur Chevrolet commits suicide
  • Civil War

  • 1863 Union ships pass Vicksburg
  • Cold War

  • 1947 Bernard Baruch coins the term “Cold War”
  • Crime

  • 2007 Massacre at Virginia Tech leaves 32 dead
  • Disaster

  • 1947 Fertilizer explosion kills 581 in Texas
  • General Interest

  • 1917 Lenin returns
  • 1947 Texas City explodes
  • 1972 Apollo 16 departs for moon
  • Hollywood

  • 1889 Charlie Chaplin born
  • Literary

  • 1922 Kingsley Amis is born
  • Music

  • 1977 David Soul, of Starsky & Hutch, has the #1 song on the U.S. pop charts
  • Old West

  • 1881 Bat Masterson’s last shootout
  • Presidential

  • 1789 Washington leaves Mt. Vernon for his inauguration
  • Sports

  • 1940 Bob Feller throws no-hitter
  • Vietnam War

  • 1968 Johnson arrives in Honolulu
  • 1972 United States resumes bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong
  • World War I

  • 1917 Lenin returns to Russia from exile
  • World War II

  • 1897 Frederick William Winterbotham, one of Britain’s top code breakers, is born
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 El Calendario: Hoy en la Historia


Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramón Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

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Confrontando la información, - el pasado y el presente...
"Estudia el pasado si quieres pronosticar el futuro" (Confucio)
“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)