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14 Diciembre en la Historia

Today in History,

Hoy en la Historia,


 Highlights – 14 Diciembre en la Historia

  • The birth of quantum theory; 
  • Saddam Hussein captured; 
  • Leaders of Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia sign an internationally-brokered peace treaty;
  • George Washington dies at age 67;
  • Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and his group reach South Pole;
  • Baseball’s Roger Maris dies at age 51.

#917

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Images & Sounds from Today’s History

————Associated Press————

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————History Channel———-

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More – Images & Sounds from Today’s History

 1900

The birth of quantum theory

German physicist Max Planck publishes his groundbreaking study of the effect of radiation on a “blackbody” substance, and the quantum theory of modern physics is born.

Through physical experiments, Planck demonstrated that energy, in certain situations, can exhibit characteristics of physical matter. According to theories of classical physics, energy is solely a continuous wave-like phenomenon, independent of the characteristics of physical matter. Planck’s theory held that radiant energy is made up of particle-like components, known as “quantum.” The theory helped to resolve previously unexplained natural phenomena such as the behavior of heat in solids and the nature of light absorption on an atomic level. In 1918, Planck was rewarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on blackbody radiation.

Other scientists, such as Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrodinger, and Paul M. Dirac, advanced Planck’s theory and made possible the development of quantum mechanics–a mathematical application of the quantum theory that maintains that energy is both matter and a wave, depending on certain variables. Quantum mechanics thus takes a probabilistic view of nature, sharply contrasting with classical mechanics, in which all precise properties of objects are, in principle, calculable. Today, the combination of quantum mechanics with Einstein’s theory of relativity is the basis of modern physics.

 

1985

Baseball’s Roger Maris dies at age 51

Image result for roger maris

Roger Maris, who held the major league record for the most home runs in a single season, died yesterday at M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute in Houston after a two-year bout with cancer, hospital officials said. He was 51 years old.

During the early 1960’s when the New York Yankees reigned for five straight pennant-winning seasons, Roger Maris was all things to all people. But baseball history will remember him as the home-run twin to Mickey Mantle, and generations of fans will remember him as the man with the asterisk in the record books: *Hit 61 home runs in 1961 in a 162-game season.

The asterisk was inserted to distinguish Maris’s home-run record from the one set in 1927 by the greatest Yankee of them all: Babe Ruth, who hit 60 in the days of the 154-game season.

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1799

George Washington dies

George Washington dies

George Washington, the American revolutionary leader and first president of the United States, dies of acute laryngitis at his estate in Mount Vernon, Virginia. He was 67 years old.

George Washington was born in 1732 to a farm family in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His first direct military experience came as a lieutenant colonel in the Virginia colonial militia in 1754, when he led a small expedition against the French in the Ohio River valley on behalf of the governor of Virginia. Two years later, Washington took command of the defenses of the western Virginian frontier during the French and Indian War. After the war’s fighting moved elsewhere, he resigned from his military post, returned to a planter’s life, and took a seat in Virginia’s House of Burgesses.

During the next two decades, Washington openly opposed the escalating British taxation and repression of the American colonies. In 1774, he represented Virginia at the Continental Congress. After the American Revolution erupted in 1775, Washington was nominated to be commander in chief of the newly established Continental Army. Some in the Continental Congress opposed his appointment, thinking other candidates were better equipped for the post, but he was ultimately chosen because as a Virginian his leadership helped bind the Southern colonies more closely to the rebellion in New England.

With his inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers, General Washington led an effective war of harassment against British forces in America while encouraging the intervention of the French into the conflict on behalf of the colonists. On October 19, 1781, with the surrender of British General Charles Lord Cornwallis’ massive British army at Yorktown, Virginia, General Washington had defeated one of the most powerful nations on earth.

After the war, the victorious general retired to his estate at Mount Vernon, but in 1787 he heeded his nation’s call and returned to politics to preside over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The drafters created the office of president with him in mind, and in February 1789 Washington was unanimously elected the first president of the United States.

As president, Washington sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. Of his presidency, he said, “I walk on untrodden ground. There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not hereafter be drawn in precedent.” He successfully implemented executive authority, making good use of brilliant politicians such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson in his cabinet, and quieted fears of presidential tyranny. In 1792, he was unanimously reelected but four years later refused a third term.

In 1797, he finally began a long-awaited retirement at his estate in Virginia. He died two years later. His friend Henry Lee provided a famous eulogy for the father of the United States: “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”

 

  BBC In Context  “Written as if the event had only just ocurred” 

2003:

Saddam Hussein captured

Saddam Hussein after capture

This photo of a dishevelled Saddam Hussein was released by the US Army

The ousted President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, is under arrest after he was captured by US soldiers.”Ladies and gentlemen, we got him,” US administrator Paul Bremer told journalists in Baghdad. “The tyrant is a prisoner.”

Saddam Hussein was found hidden in a tiny bunker at a farmhouse about 10 miles (15 km) south of his home town, Tikrit.

A US military spokesman, Major-General Raymond Odierno, said the operation was launched soon after a tip-off from a member of Saddam Hussein’s own extended family.

“Over the last 10 days we brought in about five to 10 members of these families, and finally got the ultimate information from one of these individuals,” he said.

Reward

There was a $25m reward offered by the US authorities for information leading to his capture.

A similar reward was claimed for revealing the whereabouts of Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Qusay, who were killed in a raid by US forces in the northern city of Mosul in July.

Saddam Hussein was found in a “spider hole” or cellar just big enough for a person to lie down in, and six to eight feet (1.8m to 2.5m) deep.

The entrance was topped with a polystyrene lid and covered with a rug, bricks and dirt. Saddam had been breathing through an air vent and extractor fan.

The former Iraqi dictator was armed with a pistol, but Major-General Odierno said he gave himself up without resistance.

He seemed “disoriented” and “bewildered”, the Major-General said, and was arrested at 2030 local time (1730 GMT).

Dishevelled

Two unidentified people said to be “close allies” of Saddam Hussein were also arrested. Weapons and more than $750,000 in cash was confiscated.

Video footage was released by the US military showing a dishevelled Saddam with a long black and grey beard undergoing a medical examination.

The former president had not been seen since US forces entered Baghdad in April.

Despite one of the most intensive manhunts in history, he has evaded capture for eight months.

As the news spread throughout Iraq, people began celebrating in the streets of Baghdad and the northern Iraqi city of Kirkuk by sounding their horns and firing into the air.

Saddam’s stronghold towns of Tikrit and Fallujah, however, were sombre and quiet.

In Context

Saddam Hussein was transferred to the Iraqi authorities on 30 June 2004 following the handover of sovereignty to Prime Minister Iyad Allawi’s interim government. His trial opened in Baghdad the next day.Saddam Hussein was defiant. He challenged the legality of the proceedings, which he said were brought about by the “invasion forces”.

In July 2005, the tribunal laid the first charges against Saddam Hussein and seven other former regime members for crimes against humanity against Shi’ites in the town of Dujail in 1982.

The case was chosen by prosecutors because they believed it would be the easiest to compile and prosecute.

Saddam Hussein pleaded not guilty when his trial opened in Baghdad on 19 October, 2005.

His co-defendants included Barzan al-Tikriti, Saddam Hussein’s half-brother and former head of Iraq’s intelligence service and Awad Hamed al-Bandar, former Revolutionary Court chief judge.

All three were sentenced to death by an Iraqi court on 5 November 2006 after a year-long trial.

The former president was executed on 30 December 2006 after Iraq’s highest court rejected an appeal.

The Iraqi government filmed the event to prove that Saddam Hussein was dead. It stopped short of showing the actual hanging. Unofficial footage taken on a mobile phone revealed that he was taunted by his Shia executioners right up until the moment of his death. More camera-phone pictures emerged a week later showing his body with a severe neck wound – shocking images that exacerbated tensions between Sunni and Shia Muslims.

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 1995:

Bosnia peace accord ends three-year war – 

Peace agreement signing

More than 200,000 died before the peace deal was reached

Leaders of Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia have signed the Dayton Accord in Paris to end three-and-a-half years of war in the Balkans.

Under the deal Bosnia is preserved as a single state but it is divided into two parts.

It will be made up of a Muslim-Croat federation representing 51% of the country’s territory and a Serb republic holding the remaining 49%.

Sarajevo will become a unified city with Serbs giving up some suburbs which they currently control.

The so-called “safe-enclave” of Gorazde will remain under Muslim control but it will be linked by a land corridor to Sarajevo.

The three leaders signed the deal surrounded by European heads of state in a Parisian palace before 50 world leaders and international organisation chiefs.

‘Closer ties’

Serbia’s Slobodan Milosevic said the country had been an outcast for too long.

He said: “As to the implementation of the peace agreement and the role of the international peace force, the key of the success of its mission is even-handedness, just as partiality is the key of failure.”

Croatia’s Franjo Tudjman spoke of his aim for closer ties between his people and the European Union.

And Bosnia’s Alija Izetbegovic, referring to his dream of a multi-ethnic Bosnia said he felt he was “drinking a bitter but useful medicine”.

The deal was driven by President Clinton’s team and Nato will move into protect the area – with overriding power – as a temporary measure.

The success of maintaining the deal will determine aid for the war-torn country where at least 200,000 people have died in the bloodiest conflict seen in Europe since World War II.

Several million people have been left homeless – some the result of so-called ethnic cleansing operations. Many other refugees fled the country rather than get caught up in the fighting.

The American president told the summit that it was up to the three leaders and their people to ensure peace.

“No one outside can guarantee that Muslims, Croats and Serbs in Bosnia can come together and stay together as free citizens in a united country sharing a common destiny,” President Clinton said.

“Only the Bosnian people can do that.”

In Context

Despite the Dayton Summit which formally ended the conflict, tensions remain between the three Balkan neighbours.But things improved when the political landscape of the region changed.

Alija Izetbegovic stepped down in 2001, Slobodan Milosevic was put on trial at The Hague a year later for atrocities in the Balkans over a 10 year period and Franjo Tudjman died in 1999.

The countries’ new government leaders are described as moderate.

They met for the first time since their predecessors signed the peace accords in 2002.

Many problems of the war persist – most importantly the fate of around 1.5m refugees and displaced persons.

An EU peacekeeping force replaced NATO in December 2004.

Official statistics released in 2005 revealed the number of dead in the Bosnian war was lower than first thought. An interim report said the death toll was probably nearer 100,000 than 200,000.

 

 History Channel  –  “This Day in History  

1911

Amundsen reaches South Pole

Resultado de imagen de Amundsen reaches South Pole

The first person to ever reach the South Pole was Roald Amundsen, a Norwegian explorer

Norwegian Roald Amundsen becomes the first explorer to reach the South Pole, beating his British rival, Robert Falcon Scott.

Amundsen, born in Borge, near Oslo, in 1872, was one of the great figures in polar exploration. In 1897, he was first mate on a Belgian expedition that was the first ever to winter in the Antarctic. In 1903, he guided the 47-ton sloop Gjöa through the Northwest Passage and around the Canadian coast, the first navigator to accomplish the treacherous journey. Amundsen planned to be the first man to the North Pole, and he was about to embark in 1909 when he learned that the American Robert Peary had achieved the feat.

Amundsen completed his preparations and in June 1910 sailed instead for Antarctica, where the English explorer Robert F. Scott was also headed with the aim of reaching the South Pole. In early 1911, Amundsen sailed his ship into Antarctica’s Bay of Whales and set up base camp 60 miles closer to the pole than Scott. In October, both explorers set off–Amundsen using sleigh dogs, and Scott employing Siberian motor sledges, Siberian ponies, and dogs. On December 14, 1911, Amundsen’s expedition won the race to the Pole and returned safely to base camp in late January.

Scott’s expedition was less fortunate. The motor sleds broke down, the ponies had to be shot, and the dog teams were sent back as Scott and four companions continued on foot. On January 18, 1912, they reached the pole only to find that Amundsen had preceded them by over a month. Weather on the return journey was exceptionally bad–two members perished–and a storm later trapped Scott and the other two survivors in their tent only 11 miles from their base camp. Scott’s frozen body was found later that year.

After his historic Antarctic journey, Amundsen established a successful shipping business. He later made attempts to become the first explorer to fly over the North Pole. In 1925, in an airplane, he flew within 150 miles of the goal. In 1926, he passed over the North Pole in a dirigible just three days after American explorer Richard E. Byrd had apparently done so in an aircraft. In 1996, a diary that Byrd had kept on the flight was found that seemed to suggest that the he had turned back 150 miles short of its goal because of an oil leak, making Amundsen’s dirigible expedition the first flight over the North Pole.

In 1928, Amundsen lost his life while trying to rescue a fellow explorer whose dirigible had crashed at sea near Spitsbergen, Norway.

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Hoy en la Historia del Mundo

Efemérides


1287 En los Países Bajos, una tormenta rompe la represa del Zuiderzee y mueren entre 50.000 y  80.000 personas.

1541 En España, Francisco Dávila instituye el Mayorazgo de Dávila.

1570 En el actual territorio de Colombia, en el departamento del Norte de Santander se funda la localidad de Ocaña.

1782 En Francia, los hermanos Montgolfier realizan el primer vuelo de prueba de su primer globo.

1788 En España: el rey Carlos IV sube al trono a la muerte de su padre, Carlos III.

1809 La Junta Suprema Central acuerda la creación de la Academia Militar de Sevilla.

1810 En un encuentro con los independentista argentinos, cae prisionero y es fusilado en la plaza de Potosí, el marino gaditano José de Córdova y Rojas.

1810 En Hampshire (Inglaterra), un violentísimo tornado F5 recorre desde Old Portsmouth hasta Southsea Common; se cree que no produjo víctimas fatales.

1812 La Grande Armée de Napoleón es expulsada de Rusia.

1836 En EE. UU. finaliza de manera no oficial la guerra entre Ohio y Míchigan.

1852 En España, Federico Roncali Ceruti es nombrado presidente del Consejo de Ministros. (imagen dch)

1855 En Chile, el Congreso Nacional aprueba el Código Civil redactado por Andrés Bello.

1882 Fundación de la ciudad de Armstrong, provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina.

1900 En Berlín Max Planck presenta una derivación teórica de su ley de radiación del cuerpo negro dando origen a la mecánica cuántica

1911 El explorador noruego Roald Amundsen llega al Polo Sur.

1913 Primer clásico del fútbol uruguayo entre Club Atlético Peñarol y Club Nacional de Football.

1914 En el Hotel Savoy (de Buenos Aires), el rosarino Lisandro de la Torre y otros fundan el Partido Demócrata Progresista.

1920 En Reino Unido, la Cámara de los Lores aprueba la división de Irlanda en dos territorios autónomos, el norte protestante y el sur católico.

1920 Argentina se retira de la Sociedad de Naciones.

1921 Alemania solicita un aplazamiento en los pagos de las reparaciones de guerra a los aliados.

1924 En Argentina se funda el club Club Atlético Racing en la ciudad de Córdoba.

1925 Durante la dictadura del general Primo de Rivera se publica un decreto por el que se suprime el Estado Mayor Central del Ejército de España.

1927 Parte del aeródromo madrileño de Carabanchel con destino a Barcelona el primer vuelo comercial de la compañía Iberia.(imagen izq)

1930 En España son fusilados los capitanes Galán y García Hernández, responsables de la sublevación de Jaca.

1931 IIª República española: Huesca.- Tres heridos en enfrentamientos con sindicalistas.

1931 Se estrena en el cine Capitol de Barcelona la película Fermín Galán, la sublevación de Jaca, dirigida por Fernando Roldán.

1932 Francesc Maciá es refrendado como presidente de la Generalidad de Cataluña.

1933 Guerra del Chaco: los paraguayos conquistan el fuerte de Saavedra (Bolivia) y dan por
terminado el conflicto.

1934 IIª República española: Se produce la primera huelga general de veinticuatro horas en España, organizada por la UGT.

1936 Guerra Civil: En Córdoba es fusilado por las fuerzas nacionales el republicano de Luque (Córdoba), Agustín Cañete Moreno.

1936 Las fuerzas nacionales del Requeté de Andalucía, mandada por el teniente coronel Redondo(imagen dch), entran en Baena (Córdoba).

1939 La URSS es expulsada de la Sociedad de Naciones por invadir Finlandia.

1942 En el norte de África en el marco de la Segunda Guerra Mundial Rommel es obligado a retirarse de El Agheila.

1942 En España se aprueba la ley del Seguro Obligatorio de Enfermedad.

1944 Segunda Guerra Mundial: ataques aéreos aliados sobre Rangún y Bangkok.

1946 La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas vota por establecer su sede central en la ciudad de Nueva York.

1947 En España se inaugura el Estadio Santiago Bernabéu.

1947 En Daytona Beach (Florida) se funda la Nascar (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing).

1947 Rómulo Gallegos, candidato de Acción Democrática, gana las elecciones generales y presidenciales en Venezuela.

1948 En El Salvador se perpetra un golpe de Estado contra el general Salvador Castaneda Castro, quien deseaba reelegirse. (imagen izq)

1950 El coronel Osorio asume la presidencia de El Salvador.

1950 Se crea el Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados (ACNUR).

1955 En la ONU ingresan 15 nuevos países: Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Finlandia, Hungría, Irlanda, Italia, Jordania, Laos, Portugal, Rumania y España.

1956 Comienza a funcionar la Universidad del Nordeste en Argentina.

1956 Blas Piñar, nombrado director del Instituto de Cultura Hispánica.

1958 El Ejército Rebelde cubano toma Florencia, primer pueblo en la provincia de Camagüey.

1958 En la Antártida, la Tercera Expedición Antártica Soviética es la primera en alcanzar el Polo de Relativa Inaccessibilidad.

1961 La República Unida de Tanzania se une a la ONU.

1960 La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas aprueba la descolonización de la ciudad andaluza de Gibraltar.

1962 La sonda estadounidense Mariner 2  (imagen dch) es la primera nave hacia Venus. Se acerca a 33.000 km tras recorrer 300 millones de kilómetros.

1963 Referéndum favorable a la ley de autonomía administrativa en la Guinea Ecuatorial española.

1966 Refrendada en España la Ley Orgánica del Estado.

1966 Se suspenden las garantías constitucionales en Venezuela; las tropas ocupan la Universidad Central de Caracas e incautan numeroso material bélico.

1967 En la Universidad de Stanford, Estados Unidos, Arthur Kornberg y su colega anunciaron la primera síntesis exitosa del ADN.

1969 En México se transmite por vez primera el programa televisivo Siempre en Domingo, de enorme éxito en América Latina.

1969 Boca empata 2 a 2 con River en el Estadio Monumental y se consagra campeón del Torneo Nacional de ese año.

1969 Se publica la novela San Camilo 1936, de Camilo José Cela.

1970 Es suspendido por seis meses el artículo 18 del Fuero de los Españoles en todo el Estado.

1972 En el marco del programa Apolo, Eugene Cernan es la última persona que caminó sobre la Luna, después de que él y Harrison Schmitt completaron el tercer y último Actividad extravehicular (EVA) de la nave Apolo 17. Esta fue la última misión tripulada a la Luna en el siglo XX.

1976 Referéndum en España de la ley de Reforma Política.

1979 La banda británica The Clash lanza su álbum más exitoso, London Calling.(imagen izq)

1980 Durante la celebración del III Congreso extraordinario del Partido Andalucista, un grupo de militantes se separan y se incorporan al PSOE.

1982 En España, Gerardo Iglesias es elegido secretario general del PCE en sustitución de Santiago Carrillo.

1983 Es liberado Segundo Marey, quien había sido secuestrado por los G.A.L.

1985 El Gobierno chileno prorroga por tres meses el estado de emergencia en todo el país.

1986 Los Reyes de España llegan a Lagos en su gira africana por Nigeria y Zimbabue.

1987 Las Cortes de Castilla y León aprueban la ley que designa a Valladolid capital de esa comunidad autonóma.

1988 En España, los sindicatos UGT y CC. OO. convocan una huelga general (14-D) que fue secundada masivamente y obligó al gobierno de Felipe González a retirar su reforma laboral.

1989 La coalición de partidos de la oposición gana las elecciones generales en Chile, con mayoría simple en el Congreso y minoría en el Senado, con lo que Patricio Aylwin será el nuevo presidente del país.

1989 En Chile, Patricio Aylwin es elegido presidente.

1992 Concluye oficialmente la guerra civil en El Salvador. El FMLN, inscrito como partido, retira su último contingente armado.

1994 El torero Rafael de Paula, condenado a ir a la cárcel.
(imagen dch)

1994 En China , se inicia la construcción de la Presa de las Tres Gargantas.

1996 Miles de ciudadanos se solidarizan en Madrid con el 0,7% contra la miseria.

1998 Cuatro ONG reciben los Premios Europeos de la Solidaridad, entre ellas la organización española Paz y Tercer Mundo por su proyecto para los desplazados del Chocó en Colombia.

1998 El obispo de San Sebastián, José María Setién escribe al dirigente etarra Jon Gaztelumendi, condenado por 9 asesinatos, ofreciéndose para mediar a favor de los presos etarras que él califica como presos políticos.

1999 Jorge Edwards es galardonado con el Premio Cervantes.

2000 La banda criminal ETA asesina en Tarrasa a un concejal del PP.

2001 Argentina hace frente a su deuda con el dinero de los fondos de pensiones.

2001 El Príncipe Felipe anuncia el fin de su “relación personal” con Eva Sannum.

2001 El temporal de frío deja sin luz a Barcelona y causa seis muertos.

2002 La oposición venezolana toma las calles de Caracas para pedir la dimisión del presidente Chávez.

2002 Mohamed VI autoriza a la flota gallega a faenar en aguas marroquíes por la catástrofe del
“Prestige”.(imagen izq)

2003 Miles de personas se manifiestan en San Sebastián, en contra del “plan Ibarretxe”.

2003 España: La CNMV ha detectado un total de 101 entidades financieras no autorizadas desde el año 1999.

2003 El presidente de Pakistán, Pervez Musharraf, escapa de un intento de asesinato.

2004 En Francia, el presidente Jacques Chirac inaugura el puente más alto del mundo, el Viaducto de Millau, construido a 343 metros de altura, en la región de Millau.

2004 Venezuela y Cuba fundan el ALBA (Alianza Bolivariana para las Américas).

2005 El presidente colombiano, Álvaro Uribe, acepta negociar con las FARC, en una zona desmilitarizada, un posible canje de presos por secuestrados.

2005 El ministro de Trabajo español, Jesús Caldera, sitúa en 540 euros mesuales el salario mínimo interprofesional.

2007 El ex-presidente español Felipe González, es elegido para dirigir el “comité de sabios” de la Unión Europea.

2008 En Bagdad (Irak), el periodista iraquí Muntazer al Zaidi tira sus dos zapatos contra George W. Bush (Presidente de los Estados Unidos) en su cuarto y último viaje a Irak.(imagen dch)

2011 En Chile, la Universidad de Chile se consagra campeón de la Copa Sudamericana al ganarle 3-0 a Liga de Quito.

2012 En Newtown Connecticut, masacre en una escuela de primaria de Connecticut, EE.UU. deja 28 fallecidos entre ellos 20 niños aproximadamente a las 9.35 de la mañana.

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Hispanópolis

Diciembre 14 en la Historia del Mundo …

 

2008 Un periodista iraquí lanza sus zapatos contra el presidente de los EE.UU., George W. Bush en una rueda de prensa celebrada en Bagdad.
2004 Francia: El presidente Jacques Chirac inaugura el puente más alto del mundo, construido a 343 metros de altura, en la región de Millau.
1995 Francia: firma de los acuerdos de Dayton en París.
1989 Patricio Aylwin Azócar es elegido presidente después de 17 años de dictadura en Chile.
1988 Los sindicatos UGT y CC.OO. convocan una huelga general en España, la primera de la democracia, que fue secundada masivamente.
1987 Las Cortes de Castilla y León aprueban la ley que designa a Valladolid capital de esa comunidad autonóma.
1982 Gerardo Iglesias es elegido Secretario General del PCE en sustitución de Santiago Carrillo.
1979 Irán: fuerzas iraquíes invaden territorio iraní.
1962 La sonda estadounidense Mariner II se acerca a 33.000 km de Venus, tras recorrer 300 millones de kilómetros.
1955 ONU: ingresan 15 nuevos países, entre ellos España.
1950 Creación del ACNUR.
1948 El Salvador: golpe de estado contra el general Salvador Castaneda Castro, quien deseaba reelegirse.
1947 España: Se inaugura el Estadio Santiago Bernabeu celebrándose un partido entre Os Belenenses y el Real Madrid, marcando el primer gol en el estadio, Sabino Barinaga Alberdi.
1944 Segunda Guerra Mundial: ataques aéreos aliados sobre Rangún y Bangkok.
1942 España: se aprueba la ley del Seguro Obligatorio de Enfermedad.
1942 Segunda Guerra Mundial: Rommel es obligado a retirarse de El Aghelia, en el norte de África.
1939 La URSS es expulsada de la Sociedad de las Naciones por su agresión a Finlandia.
1930 España: son fusilados los capitanes Galán y García Hernández, responsables de la sublevación de Jaca.
1927 España: primer vuelo comercial de la compañía Iberia que parte del aeródromo de Carabanchel con destino a Barcelona.
1921 Alemania solicita un aplazamiento en los pagos de las reparaciones de guerra a los aliados.
1920 Argentina: el gobierno se retira de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1920 Reino Unido: la Cámara de los Lores aprueba la división de Irlanda en dos territorios autónomos, el norte protestante y el sur católico.
1911 El explorador noruego Roald Amundsen llega al polo sur.
1855 El Congreso Nacional de Chile aprueba el Código Civil redactado por Andrés Bello.
1852 España: Federico Roncali Ceruti es nombrado presidente del Consejo de Ministros.
1788 España: el rey Carlos IV sube al trono a la muerte de su padre, Carlos III.
1702 Japón: muerte de los 47 ronin por seppuku colectivo, por órdenes del shogun.
Nacimientos Notables en Diciembre 14 …

 

1988 Vanessa Anne Hudgens, actriz y cantante estadounidense.
1987 Nace en Viña del Mar, Nicolás Santana, Destacado Abogado de Chile
1987 Vanessa Anne Hudgens, Actriz y cantante estadounidense
1979 Michael Owen, futbolista inglés.
1976 Santiago Ezquerro, futbolista español.
1966 Lucrecia Martel, directora de cine argentina.
1963 Serguei Bubka, atleta ucraniano.
1962 Ginger Lynn Allen, actriz estadounidense.
1951 Jan Timman, ajedrecista holandés.
1950 José Bono, político español.
1946 Jane Birkin, actriz y cantante británica.
1942 Juan Diego, actor español.
1940 Paco Camino, torero español.
1938 Leonardo Boff, teólogo de la Teología de la Liberación.
1937 Franz De Mulder, ciclista belga.
1935 Lee Remick, actriz estadounidense.
1920 Orlando Pelayo, pintor español.
1916 José María García Escudero, historiador español.
1914 Karl Carstens, político y abogado alemán.
1911 Hans-Joachim Pabst von Ohain, inventor alemán.
1910 Óscar Osorio, militar y político salvadoreño
1909 Edward Lawrie Tatum, genetista estadounidense, premio Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina en 1958.
1895 Eugène Grindel (Paul Éluard), poeta francés.
1895 Jorge VI, rey de Gran Bretaña.
1894 Joaquín Zamacois, compositor chileno.
1887 Xul Solar, pintor argentino.
1883 Morihei Ueshiba, artista marcial japonés.
1853 Salvador Díaz Mirón, poeta mexicano.
1846 Joaquín Costa, político, sociólogo y polígrafo español.
1831 Arsenio Martínez Campos, militar y político español.
1802 Carlos Martínez de Irujo y McKean, diplomático y político español, duque de Sotomayor.
1787 Joaquín Mariano Mosquera y Arboleda, político colombiano.
1775 Thomas Cochrane, político y aventurero naval británico.
1739 Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, empresario y economista francés.
1546 Tycho Brahe, astrónomo danés.
1503 Michel de Notredame, Nostradamus, alquimista, místico, doctor, astrólogo y escritor francés.
Fallecimientos Notables en Diciembre 14 …

 

2008 Ramón Barce, compositor y filósofo español (n. 1928).
2007 Hryhoriy Nestor (116 años), supercentenario ucraniano (n. 1891).
2006 Ahmed Ertegun, empresario discográfico turco.
2001 Ardito Desio, geólogo y geógrafo italiano.
2001 W. G. Sebald, escritor alemán.
1993 Myrna Loy, actriz estadounidense.
1990 Friedrich Dürrenmatt, escritor suizo.
1989 Andrei Sajarov, físico soviético, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1975.
1989 Lee van Cleef, actor estadounidense.
1988 Vittorio Cottafavi, director de cine italiano.
1986 Pedro Sainz Rodríguez, escritor y político español.
1985 Antonio Tovar, lingüista español.
1984 Vicente Aleixandre, poeta español, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1977
1978 Salvador de Madariaga, ensayista y diplomático español.
1962 Alfredo Kindelán, militar español.
1950 George Bernard Shaw, dramaturgo irlandés.
1943 John Harvey Kellogg, nutriólogo estadounidense.
1909 Agustín Querol, escultor español.
1909 Leopoldo II de Bélgica, rey de Bélgica (1865–1909).
1873 Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, naturalista estadounidense.
1847 Manuel José Arce y Fagoaga, militar y político salvadoreño.
1844 Melchor Múzquiz, presidente mexicano.
1836 Francisco Espoz y Mina, militar español.
1810 José de Córdova y Rojas, militar español.
1799 George Washington, primer presidente estadounidense.
1788 Carlos III de España.
1591 Juan de la Cruz, poeta místico español, santo católico.
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 History Channel  –  “Also on this Day”  

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“Hoy en la Historia”

 Ver Calendario 

“La historia no se repite, pero rima” 
(Mark Twain)
“La historia se repite, primero como tragedia, después como farsa”
(Karl Marx)
“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras
y adversidades de la humanidad” 
(E.Gibbon)
“¿La historia se repite? – 
¿O se repite sólo como penitencia de quienes son incapaces de escucharla?”
(Eduardo Galeano)

 

 


Source: Associated Press | hispanopolis.com | history.com | news.bbc.co.uk  | Efemérides:  Por Juan Ramó7n Ortega Aguilera | istopiahistoria.blogspot.it | Hispanopolis  | WIKI | YouTube | Google 

 


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“La historia es en realidad el registro de crímenes, locuras y adversidades de la humanidad” (E. Gibbon)